Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device

Components

Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware

Memory

Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports

How

How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF

Questions

Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling

Difference

Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples

Misc

Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What is a multicore processor?

A multi-core processor is an electronic component that has two or more processors attached to it for increased performance, more efficient power use, and rapid and parallel processing of multiple activities. It usually has two or more processors that read and carry out programming instructions.

What is a multicore processor

Additionally, these processors allow for the more effective parallel processing and multithreading of several tasks. A dual-core configuration is comparable to installing many different CPUs on a computer. The connection between the two CPUs is rapid, though, because they are connected to the very same socket.

In a simple method, a multicore processor is made up of several computer chips, or "Cores," on a single chip, each of which is capable of carrying out a different job. For example, in the case, if you are doing multiple jobs at once, such as using Facebook and watching instructions on "tutorialandexample", one Core would handle the work of viewing the tutorial while the other Core performs the other duties.

In ideal conditions, a dual-core CPU generally has double the power of a single-core processor. A dual-core CPU is really predicted to perform better by about 50% because it is 1.5 times as strong as a single-core processor.

Multicore computing is gaining popularity as single-core processor design and performance reach capacity boundaries. A large percentage of systems nowadays have several cores. Majorly multicore computers, often known as many-core systems, have tens or even hundreds of CPU cores.

The very first multicore CPUs were launched at the start of the 2000s by Intel and AMD. CPUs nowadays have two (dual-core), four (quad-core), six (Hexa-core), and eight (octa-core) cores (octa-core). Up to 100 structural cores and 1000 functional self-reliant cores can be found in FPGA-based CPUs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays). Almost every desktop computer nowadays employs multicore microprocessors.

Parallel processing

In order to optimize response time, parallel processing involves dividing up and performing software tasks simultaneously on many microprocessors. A desktop machine with two or more processors may carry out parallel processing (CPUs). Parallel computing is another name for parallel processing.

Customer computers could just process data sequentially up until the mid-1990s. Nowadays, the majority of operating systems control how several processors interact with one another, making parallel processing a more economical choice than serial or sequential processing.

Multithreading 

When an operating system supports multithreading, a central processing unit (CPU) can offer many processes of operation simultaneously. Compared to multiprocessing, this strategy is different, where one or more cores in multiprocessing architectures comprise several full processing units.

What is a homogenous and heterogeneous multicore processor?

A multicore processor's Core might be homogenous or heterogeneous. For x86 system architectures, mainstream multicore processors from Intel and AMD are homogenous and offer similar cores. However, it is sometimes inefficient to use complicated equipment for a simple task or to achieve maximum performance. The demand for heterogeneous multicore processors includes computers with several cores for various tasks.

Heterogeneous Core comes in embedded or Arm processors that may include microprocessor and microcontroller cores in the same device, and heterogeneous cores are generally observed.

Examples of the multicore processor:

  • Intel Core i9 12900 family provides eight cores and 24 threads.
  • Intel Core i7 12700 family provides eight cores and 20 threads.
  • Top Intel Core i5 12600K processors offer six cores and 16 threads.
  • AMD Zen 3 family provides 4 to 16 cores.
  • AMD Zen 2 family provides up to 64 cores.
  • AMD Zen+ family provides 4 to 32 cores etc.

For heterogeneous multicore CPUs, there are various primary objectives; some are as follows:

  • Optimized performance: Even while homogenous multicore processors are frequently designed to offer all-purpose computing power, many processors are not made for such wide system use situations. Instead, they are developed and marketed for use in embedded systems, which may make use of each processor's distinct advantages.
  • Optimized power: Having simpler CPU cores lowers the number of transistors and lowers power requirements. As a result, the system as a whole is cooler and more energy-efficient.

The architecture of a multicore processor

Multicore architecture's core balance and design show a wide range of characteristics. Homogeneous architectures implement a single core design that is repeatedly used, whereas heterogeneous architectures use a variety of cores that are each designed for a distinct job.

The implementation and integration of several cores have a major effect on both the programming abilities of the developer and the consumer's expectations for apps and interaction.

How does a multicore processor work?

A multi-core processor is a processor, which holds two or more independent processors into a single place, known as a multicore processor. Usually, multiple integrated circuits can complete parallel tasks. A system can only focus on one task at a time if it has one Core. You can only move on to the second task after finishing the first. However, a system can handle numerous tasks at once when it has multiple cores. This is excellent for the multitasking world of today. You may be convinced that the majority of personal computers today have multicore microprocessors. It is commonly utilized in a variety of technological fields, such as general purpose, embedded, etc.

It is essential to understand the history of processor technology before going into understanding how multicore processors run. Earlier to the concept of multiple Core processors, organizations and people tried to design computers with many CPUs. Therefore, a motherboard would need to include many CPU sockets. This idea causes delay because a motherboard has to divide data between two entirely different locations in a computer due to extra communication connections. The processing remains slow because of this physical distance. Therefore, running several processes on a single chip with multiple cores reduces the distance travelled while also enabling the same resources to handle required tasks simultaneously.

After conducting experiments, finally, multicore CPUs were developed. A multi-core processor explains how a single processor simply has multiple processing units, similar to what a dual-core CPU has two processing units. The motherboard and operating system should first realize that the processor has multiple cores. Because if you try to install an older operating system with one Core on a computer with multicore, it cannot work well. For example, Windows 95 doesn't support hyper-threading or many cores; as a result, if you install it on a multicore computer, it will not make any use of your computer and will operate more slowly than a single core CPU. All current operating systems, including Windows 7, 8, 10, Apple's OS X 10.10, Linux, and others, support multicore and multi-threaded operations.

In a single Core system, the operating system informs the motherboard that a process needs to be carried out, and then the motherboard informs the processor. But in the case of multicore, data is transferred from the hard drive/RAM to the CPU via the motherboard, and the operating system can instruct the processor to do various works simultaneously.

Latest Processors have multiple labels of cache memory. These cache memories can speed up processing a lot. L1 cache is the cache memory's lowest level. If the CPU cannot find the information it needs in the L1 cache for its next work process, then it looks in the L2 cache.

The multicore idea actually increases a processor's processing power. More cores will continue to be implemented in the future, along with an increase in CPU clock speed.

This is how a multicore processor's entire working process is carried out.

Use of multicore processor

  1. Databases & the Cloud- Multiple tasks are carried out simultaneously by databases. You can do more work if you have more CPU because if you have more CPU, then you will have more single-core processors. Similarly, several databases can be merged and managed onto a single computer because the computer will have multicore processors. Once again, the main factor making this possible is the increased memory bandwidth (consider bandwidth as a wide road).
  2. 3D gaming- Multiple cores are used in games. In general, it can be used anywhere from 1 to 8 cores depending on the game. But still, 4-6 cores are utilized by the large and bigger games. Nowadays, even the smallest independent games use multiple cores. This is true of almost all games.

Advantages of multicore processors

  • Compared to single processors. Multicore processors can do more tasks.
  • Multicore processors are able to handle more data than single-centre processors.
  • When compared to the earlier (single-core) processor, they can accomplish more work and use less energy.
  • Using multicore processor CPUs requires less space on the PCB (printed circuit board).

Disadvantages of multicore processors

  • It costs more than single-core processors.
  • Multicore processors don't operate at twice the speed of a single-core processor, but we expect that they will be twice faster as a single-core processor.
  • They use more electric power overall.
  • As the multicore processors perform more work, their processors heat up.