Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

Edge Computing

What is Edge Computing?

Topics Covered

  1. What is Edge Computing?
  2. Need of Edge computing
  3. Benefits of Edge Computing
  4. Potential industries using Edge Computing
  5. Challenges of Edge Computing

We all know about data existing in the cloud, but have we ever wondered from where this data comes from? Indeed, we use existing data in the cloud and process it with different software which further helps in performing analytics, but we never cared about the origin of the data.  Of course, the data is created by humans in our operating environments while interacting, computing, or performing various tasks. With time, everything upgraded including the information and its computing demands. The rise of real time computing demands has forced the technology drivers to rethink on the cloud computer architecture and relocate it from centralized to distributed servers. Thus, the concept of Edge computing came into action.

What is Edge Computing?

What is Edge Computing?

The computing that occurs by placing workloads at the edge of corporate networks where the data is being created is known as Edge Computing. The “edge” is defined as the position where the end devices can access the rest of the network devices like laptops, phones, desktop, machines, routers, and sensors. This technology is used to connect IoT devices so they can deliver data efficiently, receive instructions quickly, and download software updates from a cloud or a data center without any hassle. Edge computing is a new approach to network architecture where first in cloud computing continues to play an important role and secondly the new possibilities offered by IoT devices which are capable of processing the data are forcing companies to rethink their approach to IT infrastructure. Edge devices collects, sorts, and performs the analysis of the data and after processing stores the data it to its destined place.

What is Edge Computing?

Edge Computing is an open distributed computing paradigm that ensures speedy computation, handles data activities, network operations and data storage. It brings the devices closer to the place as a result improving the post time and saving bandwidth. It features decentralized processing power enabling mobile computing and Internet of Things.

The Edge computing data is either processed by the device itself or by a local computer or server rather than being directly transmitted to a data center. The data computing occurs at the Edge of the device or at the location where data is generated. Thus, it significantly improves the speed of data processing by reducing the data travelling between devices and centralized cloud data centers.  This technology opens a platform for us to communicate into the premises where the work is performed unlike the warehouses, retail store, supermarket, banks, etc,.With the outbreak of the Internet of things or IoT devices, there is a bulk of data present in the centrally located data centers or cloud. Hence, it requires larger and expensive connections to maintain the sheer volume of data. The work performed by these IoT devices creates a need for much faster connections between the data center or cloud and the devices.

For example, in a petroleum refinery station, the valves' sensors detect the dangerously high pressure in the pipes. In that case, the shutoff for the supply of petroleum must be called off immediately. The automatic shut may delay the shutoff process as it takes time to analyze that pressure taking place at distant processing centers. But we can prevent this delay by placing the processing power locally to the end devices. It will minimize the latency, reduce the roundtrip time, and will save the downtime. Thus, causing less damage to man, money, and material. 

The key component of cloud computing is to maintain the security and balancing the stability if there is any failure in its connections. In case of Edge Computing as well, security is at utmost importance as these devices come across various network elements and hold confidential data, if exploited, could compromise other devices as well that contain valuable assets. Edge computing makes sure that the edge devices themselves become a single point of failure network architect by building redundancy and provide failover contingencies in order to avoid crippling downtime.

The edge computing devices are Raspberry Pi 4 B Model, LattePanda Alpha, UDOO Bolt, Jetson Nano (Nvidia), and Intel Neural Compute Stick 2.

What is Need of Edge Computing?

For over a decade centralized cloud computing was consistent and has revolutionized a standard platform to read, write, store, and fetch data. It has a strong data centric architecture where resource storing, and computational operations were efficient and scalable. The cloud has become an indispensable part of data processing and storage.  

What is Need of Edge Computing?

But with technology and internet, the era witnessed colossal growth of information known as ‘Internet of Things’. IoT generates incomplete data, which further needs to be processed and answered in a very short time. Resulting with a sudden rise in real time computing demands but with cloud computing the cost for generating the data also increased exponentially. However, the cloud that has been centrally linked on a global scale to process enormous data. Besides, if the physical distance between the user and the cloud increases, it raises the transmission latency and increases the response time, as a result stressing out the user.

On top of that, cloud has only some limited access. Network convergence, streaming videos and internet usage continues to trend towards bandwidth insensitive content, offline access to programs and latency sensitive applications in an increasing demand for cloud services. The solution to these problems is to relocate the cloud computing and data storage to Edge Computing Platform. The edge computing platform works by allowing application processing to be performed by a small edge server position between the cloud and the user. The network edge lowers the data transport time and increases the availability. The objective of this technology is to compute logics and data to edge network so the data will not return to the central server every time the function is execute by an IoT device. This technology allows some of the workloads to be offloaded from the cloud server and push it closer to the user’s devise for processing. Thus, speeding up application’s response time and maintains a low latency response.

Cloud Computing V/S Edge Computing

Edge computing is known as one of the new trendsetters that have raised 5G Wireless technology. Indeed, 5G entails an enormous group of networks wired together with optic fiber connections to provide transmitters and base stations with prompt access to digital data. People often uses cloud computing and edge computing interchangeably. But both are diverse and have different functionalities as given below:

Cloud Computing V/S Edge Computing
Cloud ComputingEdge Computing
In Cloud computing, the IoT devices generate the data and save it to a centralized cloud server for further data processing. This happens every time whenever a new data is generated.                     With Edge computing, the edge interface comes in between IoT devices and cloud servers. This edge could be directly connected with the IoT device or configure the closest possible to the device. The objective of this technology is to compute logics and data to edge network so the data will not return to the central server every time the function is execute by an IoT device.
In cloud computing, the data process is initiated through Centrally Managed System (CMS), which makes the processing more time-dependent and less efficient.In the case of edge computing, the initial processing is done by the "edge," while a Centrally Managed System carries rest.
The files or applications present in the cloud processing are directly accessed from the server.In edge computing, the processing is done on the "edge" network.
This technology is used to access the back-end data that might not be efficient enough to provide real-time monitoring and analysis.Edge Computing is used for the real-time analysis and monitoring of data.
The data processing is happening on the serving, which is far away from the devices. Thus, it increases the data latency and consumption of network bandwidth.The edge computing is used to reduce network latency and enhance its speed and performance. The speed and flexibility of this technology is used for handling data by creating an exciting range of possibilities for organizations.
Cloud computing technology processes the data that is not driven by time.Edge computing technology processes time-sensitive data.

Benefits of Edge Computing

Benefits of Edge Computing
  1. Real Time Data Processing: This is the core objective of edge computing. Since the data computing happens locally that can achieve real time data processing. The economical monitoring approach of real time processing prevent many concerns even prior of their occurrence.
  2. High Speed and low latency: The data is not traveling every time to cloud server network can greatly reduce latency and can enhance data processing performance. When data is connected closer to the user, information can be shared quickly, securely and without latency. Edge computing is combined with 5G, as a result reducing the latency to 1 millisecond.
  3. Reduced Internet bandwidth usage and associated cost: Edge can significantly reduce internet bandwidth usage and cost. Since the data processing happens at the edge network. The server resources are free most of the time and can be utilized in other cloud specific operations hence it can reduce server resources utilization and is associated cost.
  4. Responsive and Robust Application Performance – Responsive and robust application performance can be achieved by uploading the processing logic to local edge environment. Therefore, it improves the business efficiency and reliability by doing critical operations in local environment without feeling about network disconnect for response time out.
  5. Distributed Security – The key advantage of the Edge computing is that it processes the data locally. Thus, minimizing the direct interaction with the cloud. As a result, it reduces the risk of DDoS attacks that cripple networks and maintains the security.
  6. Increased Reliability – Micro data centers operate in all manner of environments due to which the interruptions occurring due to internet and cloud are gone. Edge Computing brings everything closer to the user and supports robust, secure, and intelligent on-premise infrastructure.

Potential Industries Using Edge Computing

Below are the top 10 industries where edge computer can be a game changer by looking at their use cases:

  1. Banking and Insurance
Banking and Insurance

With banking business data and processes are most critical things and Edge can play vital role in improving the overall service performance.

  • Health care
Health care

Real-time information is so important that they cannot compromise with it, such as tracking patient health conditions, monitoring of hospital equipment, active drug tracking, improved fitness, and wellness for users. It also enhances wearable Healthcare Devices for Real-time Data Analysis.

  • Energy sector
Energy sector

Oil fields and mines, where edge computing can help to do real-time tracking of worksite safety conditions tracking equipment conditions critical sensor with drilling device conditions monitoring.

  • Travel Transport
Travel Transport

Edge computing is bliss and incredibly useful for real-time autonomous vehicle control and monitoring. This technology facilitates vehicle scheduling, route tracking, logistics tracking, and equipment efficiency. It also enhances vehicle performance by collecting real-time data on the road. It also facilitates vision Recognition with Deep Learning Algorithm to ensure lane Traffic Congestion Control.

  • Infrastructure Development
Infrastructure Development

Edge computing can play a vital role in the development of infrastructure and big construction projects. It can measure the real-time worksite safety condition, maintain the proactive equipment operations, and track a worker's real-time activity.

  • Airlines and shipping industries
Airlines and shipping industries

Edge computing has a good scope in the airline industry. This technology facilitates real-time weather forecasting, safety equipment monitoring, analysis of the inner airplane environment, and report immediately if anything goes wrong. Thus, prevents and remedy even before any problem has occurred. Edge Computing has also impacted satellite functions such as telecom monitoring, weather patterns, ship route navigation, tracking UPS, and shipping containers.

  • Public Sectors
Public Sectors

In smart cities, a healthy and safe lifestyle involves ample elements. Edge computing has affected citizens' lives by monitoring air quality, traffic check, congestion monitoring, smart parking, water meters management, tracing water leakage, monitoring water quality, etc.,

  •  Manufacturing

In the manufacturing sector, edge computing can perform real-time monitoring production, maintain line tracking safety, and track production control improvement.

  • Agriculture

In India, agriculture is the primary source of income for most of the citizens. Improving the agriculture sector directly impacts the life of agriculturists. Edge computing monitors the soil condition, sensor-based data collection for Agriculture Industry, track the growth of plants, rain prediction, etc.

  1. Retail

In the retail sector, edge computing facilitates real-time inventory tracking and optimization using collected ID billing of material handling store, energy management, CRM data management for leads generation. It also provides logistics Container condition and tracking.

Challenges of Edge Computing

  1. Colocation Cloud Data Centers: The method of private housing servers and networking devices in a third-party data center is Colocation. To ensure smooth edge computing operations, the cloud provider would require setting up or collaborate with local data centers, which itself will bring a lot of challenges in terms of data virtualization and replication.
  2. 5G Technology: 5G wireless technology ensures the delivery of high-speed data, decreased latency, increased reliability, availability, and vast network capacity. Thus, enhancing user experience to a greater experience. 5g working is required to accelerate real-time applications such as video processing, autonomous cars, AI intelligence, deep learning, and robotics. But indeed, it a challenge for the developers to maintain the 5g technology and provide all the features without any hindrance.
  3. Strong Security Management: Strong data secret tools and policies play a major role data for Edge Computing. The securing could be a challenge and troublesome, especially when handled by different devices that might not be as secure as a centralized cloud-based system.
  4. Continuous Local hardware Maintenance: With edge computing, the number of edge devices also increases. Thus, it involves large investments and more maintenance costs.  
  5. Network Connectivity and Electrical Power Management: Edge computing requires uninterrupted network connectivity and electrical power management because different edge devices require different processing power and network connectivity.