Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What is Data diddling?

Data diddling, or data manipulation, is a type of computer-based fraud in which data is altered or changed to cause harm, gain an advantage, or conceal fraudulent activities. This can be done by changing data values, modifying data fields, deleting data, or adding data to a database or computer system. Insiders, such as employees or contractors, often do data diddling with an authorized computer system or database access.

External attackers who have gained unauthorized access to the system can also carry it out. The consequences of data diddling can be serious, ranging from financial losses and damage to reputation to legal liabilities and regulatory violations. To prevent data diddling, organizations should implement strong security measures, such as access controls, authentication, and data encryption, as well as monitoring and auditing tools to detect and prevent unauthorized changes to data.

What is Data diddling

Protection from Data diddling:

To protect against data diddling, organizations should implement the following measures:

1. Access control: Limiting access to sensitive data to only authorized personnel is crucial in protecting against data diddling. Access should only be granted to those who need it to perform their duties.

2. Authentication: Passwords, two-factor authentication, biometric verification, or other authentication methods can help verify the identity of users accessing the data.

3. Data encryption: To prevent illegal access and modification, data should be encrypted both in transit and at rest.

4. Regular backups: Regularly backing up data can help the organization recover lost or damaged data in case of a successful data diddling attack.

5. Monitoring and auditing: Implementing monitoring and auditing tools can help detect and prevent unauthorized changes to data. These tools can alert security personnel when unauthorized access or changes to data occur.

6. Employee training: Educating employees about data security best practices, including the risks of data diddling, can help reduce the likelihood of insider attacks.

7. Continuous security assessment: Regular security assessments can help identify and address vulnerabilities that attackers could exploit. These assessments should include technical and non-technical measures, such as policies and procedures, employee behaviour, and physical security. By implementing these measures, organizations can significantly reduce the risk of data diddling and improve their overall data security posture.

Process of Data diddling:

Data diddling typically involves the following steps:

1. Identifying the target data: The attacker identifies the target data they want to manipulate, such as financial records, personal information, or transaction data.

2. Gaining access: The attacker gains access to the target system or database by exploiting vulnerabilities or obtaining login credentials.

3. Modifying the data: Once the attacker has access, they modify the target data, either by changing values, deleting records, or adding new entries.

4. Covering their tracks: By erasing audit logs or changing records to make it appear that someone else performs the changes, the attacker may try to hide their traces to avoid being discovered.

5. Exploiting manipulated data: Once the data has been used, the attacker can exploit it for financial gain, political advantage, or other purposes.

6. Continuing the attack: In some cases, data diddling may be an ongoing attack where the attacker continues manipulating the data over an extended period, gradually escalating the attack's impact.

Data diddling seriously threaten data security and can cause significant harm to organizations and individuals. Preventing data diddling requires a comprehensive approach to data security, including measures to detect and prevent unauthorized access and tools to monitor and audit data changes.

Methods of Data diddling:

There are various methods of data diddling that attackers may use to manipulate data, including:

SQL injection: This involves exploiting vulnerabilities in web applications to inject malicious SQL commands into a database, allowing the attacker to modify data in the database.

Social engineering: Attackers may use social engineering techniques to trick users into providing login credentials or other sensitive information that can be used to gain access to a system or database.

Backdoor access: Attackers may install a backdoor on a system, bypassing security controls and manipulating data undetected.

Malware: Attackers may use malware, such as keyloggers or spyware, to steal login credentials or gain access to a system, allowing them to manipulate data.

Insider threat: Insiders, such as employees or contractors with authorized access to a system or database, may manipulate data for personal gain, revenge, or other motives.

Data interception: Attackers may intercept data in transit, such as over an unsecured Wi-Fi network, and modify it before it reaches its destination.

Exploiting system vulnerabilities: Attackers may exploit software, hardware, or network infrastructure vulnerabilities to gain unauthorized access to a system or database and manipulate data.

To protect against these methods of data diddling, organizations should implement strong security measures, such as access controls, authentication, data encryption, monitoring, auditing, regular security assessments, and employee training.

Effects of Data diddling:

Data diddling refers to maliciously altering data or information in a computer system without the knowledge or consent of the owner or user of the system. The effects of data diddling can be serious and far-reaching, including:

  • Financial loss: Data diddling can lead to financial loss, either directly or indirectly. For example, a hacker may alter the payment information in a company's database to redirect payments to their account, causing the company to lose money.
  • Reputation damage: Data diddling can damage an individual's or organization's reputation if the altered data is made public or used to discredit them.
  • Legal consequences: Data diddling can result in legal matters, especially if the altered data is used to commit a crime, such as fraud or theft.
  • Data loss: Data diddling can lead to the loss of important data or information, especially if the altered data is critical to the operation of a system.
  • Operational disruption: Data diddling can disrupt the normal operation of a system, leading to downtime or reduced productivity.
  • Privacy violations: Data diddling can compromise the privacy of individuals or organizations, especially if sensitive data is altered or used for malicious purposes.

Overall, the effects of data diddling can be severe and long-lasting. Individuals and organizations must take steps to prevent it, such as implementing strong cybersecurity measures and regularly monitoring their systems for suspicious activity.

Laws for Data diddling:

The laws for data diddling can vary by country, but it is generally illegal and can result in criminal charges such as computer fraud, identity theft, or even hacking.

  • For example, data diddling may violate the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) in the United States. This federal legislation makes it unlawful to gain unauthorized access to a computer purposefully or to use that access for an extended period. Violators may face fines and imprisonment depending on the offense's severity.
  • In the European Union, data protection laws such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) may also apply in cases of data diddling. The GDPR gives individuals the right to control their data and imposes heavy fines on organizations violating these rights.

It is important to note that the laws surrounding data diddling constantly evolve as technology advances and new threats emerge. Therefore, individuals and organizations must stay up-to-date with the latest regulations and best practices to ensure they are not inadvertently breaking the law. Additionally, seeking legal advice in cases of suspected data diddling or other cybercrimes is always recommended.

Cases related to Data diddling:

There have been numerous cases related to data diddling over the years. 

  • One example is the case of Kevin Mitnick, a notorious hacker who was arrested in 1995 for multiple offenses, including data diddling. Mitnick was known for using social engineering techniques to gain access to computer systems. He had hacked into the systems of numerous companies and government agencies, including Motorola, Sun Microsystems, and the FBI. He was eventually caught and sentenced to five years in prison, followed by three years of supervised release.
  • Another high-profile case involving data diddling was the Target data breach of 2013. Hackers gained access to Target's computer systems and stole the credit and debit card information of approximately 40 million customers. The breach was caused by a vulnerability in Target's payment processing system that the hackers exploited. The fallout from the Target breach was significant, with the company facing multiple lawsuits and a loss of customer trust. The incident also spurred greater awareness of the importance of cybersecurity and data protection.

These cases illustrate the seriousness of data diddling and the potential consequences for those who engage in such activities. They also highlight the importance of strong cybersecurity measures and the need for companies and organizations to protect their data and systems from hackers and other cyber threats.