Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup?

To access and configure the basic settings of your computer and its hardware components, you need to enter the BIOS or CMOS setup. The following is a list of common methods for accessing and exiting the BIOS or CMOS setup, as well as some recommendations for troubleshooting.

How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup

Important: Please ensure a working keyboard before entering or exiting the BIOS or CMOS setup.

Note: The process of accessing the BIOS or CMOS setup may vary depending on your computer model or motherboard. If you need more clarification, it is advisable to consult the owner's manual for your computer or the manual for the custom-built motherboard.

Note: If you cannot enter the BIOS or CMOS setup because it's password-protected, this guide will not provide a solution. To clear a BIOS or CMOS password, you will need to follow a different process.

Access BIOS or CMOS On Newer Computers

To enter the BIOS or CMOS setup on newer computers, you need to press one of the five keys listed below during the boot process.

These keys include F1, F2, F10, Delete or Del, and Esc.

F1, F2, and F10 are function keys on the top of the keyboard. If pressing F2 opens a diagnostics tool, the setup key is likely to be F10. On the other hand, if pressing F10 opens a boot menu, the setup key is likely to be F2.

The setup keys should be pressed as the computer is booting up. You will likely see a message similar to "Press F2 to enter BIOS setup" or a flashing block of text indicating when to press F1 or F2. If you're unsure of the correct key to press, you can try pressing and holding one or more keys on the keyboard to cause a stuck key error. This will cause an option to continue or enter setup to appear.

In case you're unable to enter the BIOS or CMOS setup using the methods listed above, you can check the motherboard's manual or the manufacturer's website for the appropriate key to enter BIOS.

Once you have successfully entered the CMOS setup, you will be presented with a screen that may look different depending on the manufacturer but will still have a lot of the same options and information.

How Do I Change and Save Changes in CMOS Setup?

When you're in the CMOS setup on your computer, the process for changing the settings can vary based on the manufacturer of your BIOS. You can typically use the arrow keys to navigate through the different menus and categories, and the Enter key to select a specific setting. In some cases, you may also need to use the Page up and Page down keys to change the values of certain settings.

To save any changes you make in the CMOS setup, look for an option such as "Save and Exit" or "Save Changes." Select this option using the arrow keys, then press Enter. You may be prompted to confirm the changes, or the system may automatically save the changes and exit the CMOS setup.

Note: that the exact process for changing and saving changes in the CMOS setup can vary depending on the manufacturer, so be sure to check the bottom or right side of the setup screen for specific instructions on how to navigate and save changes.

I cannot change the values for a setting I want to use

If you're unable to change certain settings in your computer, it may indicate that the setting is not supported by your motherboard or the current version of your BIOS (Basic Input/Output System). The BIOS is a firmware that controls the basic functions of your computer and allows you to change certain settings.

If you believe that the setting you're trying to change should be supported, you may need to update your BIOS. BIOS updates can add support for new hardware and improve compatibility with new operating systems. It's important to be cautious when updating the BIOS, as a failed update can result in a non-functional computer. It's recommended to follow the instructions from your motherboard or computer manufacturer and to back up your important data before proceeding with a BIOS update.

How do I Save the Changes?

To save changes in the BIOS, you typically need to press a specific key, such as the "F10" key, to bring up the save and exit options. The key used to save the changes varies depending on the motherboard or computer manufacturer, so it's best to look for the prompt or a message on the screen that indicates which key to press.

Once you've found the correct key, you should be able to save your changes and exit the BIOS. It's important to save your changes and restart your computer so the new settings take effect. If you don't save your changes and exit the BIOS, your computer will continue to use the old settings, and any changes you made will be lost.

Access BIOS Or CMOS On Older Computers

Here is a list of some of the common key sequences used to access the BIOS setup on older computers:

  • Ctrl+Alt+Esc
  • Ctrl+Alt+Insert
  • Ctrl+Alt+Enter
  • Ctrl+Alt+S
  • Page Up
  • Page Down

Note: that these key sequences may not work on all older computers, as the method to enter the BIOS setup varies between different computer manufacturers and models. It's always best to check the documentation or website of the manufacturer to determine the correct key sequence to enter the BIOS setup on your specific computer.


To restore the BIOS on an Acer computer to its original settings, start by turning on the computer and pressing and holding the "F10" key. As you hold down this key, you should hear two beeps, which indicate that the settings are being reset. This process can be useful if your Acer computer is unable to boot or if you want to restore the BIOS to its original configuration.


To restore an older AMI BIOS to its original bootable settings, press and hold the "Insert" key while the computer is starting up. The two beeps will indicate that the BIOS has been successfully restored to its original settings.

BIOS or CMOS diskettes

On early 486, 386, and 286 computers, it was necessary to use a floppy disk to access the BIOS setup. These diskettes are typically referred to as ICU, BBU, or SCU disks and are specific to your computer's manufacturer. If you need one of these diskettes, you can contact your computer manufacturer, and they will provide you with one.

Access BIOS on early IBM computers

On some early IBM computers, to enter the BIOS setup, you need to press and hold both buttons on the mouse as the computer is booting. This is a specific method that only applies to IBM computers, and it is important to refer to the computer manufacturer's instructions or contact information for more information.

Additional suggestions for accessing BIOS or CMOS

If you have tried all the previous suggestions to access the BIOS or CMOS setup and they have not worked, another approach you can try is creating a "stuck key" error. To do this, simply press and hold down any key on your keyboard and don't let go. You may hear several beeps while doing this, but keep pressing the key until the computer stops booting. If all goes well, you should now have the option to enter the setup. If this method still doesn't work, make sure that your keyboard is functioning properly.

How to exit the BIOS or CMOS

Exiting the BIOS or CMOS setup allows you to save any changes you made to the computer's basic input/output system (BIOS) and then restart the computer. The steps to exit the BIOS setup vary depending on the type of computer you have, but some common methods include:

  • Esc Key: You can exit the BIOS setup without saving any changes by simply pressing the Esc key.
  • F10 or F12 Key: Pressing the F10 or F12 key is another way to save changes and exit the BIOS setup.
  • Exit or Save & Exit Tab: In the BIOS setup, you can access the Exit or Save & Exit ab and select the Exit or Save and Exit option to exit the setup and save any changes made.

If you have trouble exiting the BIOS setup, there are a few methods you can try to fix the problem.

  • F9 Key: Pressing the F9 key can help you load default settings and then save changes and exit the BIOS setup by pressing the F10 key.
  • Load Optimized Defaults: You can access the Exit or Save & Exit tab in the BIOS setup, select the Load Optimized Defaults option, select Yes, and then press Enter. This will revert any changes made to the BIOS or CMOS and set it back to its default settings.
  • Turn off the computer: As a last resort, you can turn off the computer, but be cautious when doing so.