Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is a Punch Card?

Paper cards with holes punched into them to represent computer data and instructions are known as punch cards (or "punched cards"), Hollerith cards, or IBM cards. They were a common way for people to enter data into early computers. The cards were put into a card reader that was attached to a computer, which translated the holes' order into digital data.

What is a Punch Card?

For instance, an early computer programmer might write a program by hand, then use a punch card machine to convert it to multiple punched cards. The programmer would then bring the stack of cards to a computer and input the software there using a card reader.

History of the punch card

Punch cards were reportedly used to operate textile mills as early as 1725. As an illustration, Joseph Marie Jacquard utilized punch cards to weave a silk self-portrait. Semen Korsakov utilized the cards in 1832 to store and look up information. Herman Hollerith created a mechanism for machines to record and store data on punch cards later in 1890, which was used for the US census. Later, he founded the business that would become IBM.

How were punch cards operated?

By punching holes in each column, which stands for one character, using a punch card machine like the one in the image above, data can be entered into the card.

When a card is finished, or the Return key is pushed, the information is technically "stored" on the card. If you develop a program using punch cards (one card for each line of code), it requires a stack of cards because each card can only carry so much data.

Each card is placed in a punch card reader to read the data from the card and load the software into the computer. The punch card reader begins reading the card as soon as it is inserted, moving vertically from top to bottom. The card reader advances to the following column after reading one column. The information would be written to a computer's memory as the reader read it. The computer would be told to run the code when all cards had been loaded into memory. Punch cards would be produced as information was output (printed).

The SAGE air defense system from the 1950s, which utilized 62,500 punched cards, was the most extensive punch card program (around 5 MB of data). The punch cards used in this application are seen in the image below with a woman standing next to them.

Dropping the punch cards was one of the customers' primary concerns when using them. It might take days or weeks to get the program back in working order if these cards were dropped or went out of order. It might not be feasible to restart the software in some circumstances.

How is a punch card read by a person?

The contents of each card were generally printed at the top of later punch cards. To see what was saved on these cards, you might look at the top of the card. The card would be reprinted if an error was found on it. If the top of the card was blank, the human would have to figure out what each number on it meant and manually translate each column. If you are familiar with modern computers, this is comparable to knowing that the binary values 01101000 and 01101001 are equivalent to 104 and 105, respectively, which, when combined in ASCII, spells out the letter hi.

Why did people utilize punch cards?

Unlike modern computers, early computers could not store files. Punch cards were the sole means to use data with other computers if you wanted to create a data file or software. Punch cards were no longer used after magnetic media was developed and became more affordable.

Are Punch cards still in use?

In the early 1900s, punch cards were the main tool for storing and retrieving data. Punch cards were first replaced by other storage technologies in the 1960s, and today they are seldom ever used or seen.

Are Punch cards their inputs?

No. The cards are not input devices by themselves. However, because it transfers data from the punch card to the computer, the punch card reader is regarded as an input device.

How were punch cards programmed, and why were punch cards chosen?

Punch cards and other pre-existing technology, such as paper tape, were utilised. Originating with early methods of vote counting in 1890. The IBM 401 from 1933 was a design that was highly reminiscent of those used in subsequent computers. The punch card reader was the IBM407, I believe, when I first used them in the middle of the 1960s. Similar to paper tape, it was employed because it was a readily adaptable existing technology. Regarding the language, I used FORTRAN IID, with the D standing for the computer's new-fangled disc storage system. However, the bootstrap code for the IBM1130 was also stored on punched cards and was loaded directly into memory.

What did punch card coding feel like?

Much more effective than it is now, in the final years of punched cards, I took a FORTRAN course, albeit I didn't do it professionally. For each programme, we had three attempts to get it properly. Like hitting the RUN button only three times, Even I was astonished that I was able to complete most of the 25 programmes in just two attempts before using the third run to either try something new or improve the output formatting.

This is the method I used. On the coding sheet, carefully code the program's initial try. Get the printout from the first run; compilation mistakes would be clear. Do not instantly debug it; instead, take it home and manually run it using the printout. Then on the printout, note each error and make the necessary corrections. Pick each incorrect card one at a time, up until the column where it belongs. After that, make the necessary corrections, which are on the card. Next time, bring it back to the computer centre. We used a machine for rectification that we had to operate ourselves.

Place the indicated card and a new card, then use the copy button to move both to the appropriate column. When the automatic machine was overloaded, we occasionally had to physically punch on a manual Hollerith code machine by twisting our fingers. The machine looked similar to this, but to make things more challenging, it only had numbers instead of the letters displayed in this picture.

Has a C compiler been created that outputs to punch cards?

You may use any existing compiler for any language to feed data into a punched card reader, then read the cards back into a compatible computer and run the programme. Punched cards are a data storage system. The same logic applies to determining whether memory sticks or hard drives require a different compiler than punched cards. The type of data storage is unimportant.

How did punch cards store non-digital computer data?

Punch cards ARE digital, so I'm not sure what you mean when you say "non-digitally." similar to how magnetic tape or magnetic discs are. On a light paper card, the bits are represented by holes placed in precise locations. Lights that either doesn't shine through where there isn't a hole or don't shine through where there is a hole are passed by the card. That data is digital. Magnetic fields on media can reverse or not, which is how discs operate. In both of these examples, the data is digital, but the actual world objects are analogue. Analogue phenomena exist in all of reality. In this sense, punch cards are just another type of digital data storage.

What did the remaining six bits per column on punch cards perform

An excellent joke first. How was Herman Hollerith interred after his passing? 9-edge right, inverted the punch card for an electronic tabulating machine was initially created by Hollerith (for a detailed history, search "Hollerith" on Google). This is why it is (to some of us) so amusing. You would place the stack of cards with the 9-edge facing down and either to the right (or left) of the card reader (or up). The explanation Thomas provided for the "holes" was excellent.

You would use the entire 80-column card if you were representing data. You had to adhere to the Cobol constructs (code in columns 8–72; column 6 for the comment character and column 72 for continuation if necessary) if you were using it for Cobol code. Initially used an IBM 026 punching machine. In those days, there was no hanging chad, so you could remove the chad and deface someone's room (I digress). Sequencing was performed on Col 73–80. The more recent card punch devices would automatically sequence your cards for you.

Therefore, you could run your cards through a card sorter if you dropped your deck or if a stupid operator shuffled your cards. I can assure you that you don't want to manually sort a programme with 1000 cards, according to Cobol constructions cols.