Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick

Computer: Registers Memory

Registers in Computer

The Registers are the type of computer memory, which is used to accept, store quickly, and transfer the data and instructions that are immediately used by the CPU (Control Processing Unit). The processor registers may hold an instruction, a storage address, or any data. It is high-speed computer memory.

The register is the group of flip-flops with each flip-flop capable of storing one bit of information. An n-bit of the register has a group of n flip-flops, and these registers can store the binary information of n-bits.

Control Processing Unit

The register consists of a group of flip-flops and gates. The flip-flops hold the binary information and gates control. The registers are used for performing the several operations; while we are working on the computer system, then these registers can be used by the CPU for performing the operations.

 If we give some input to the system, then the input will be stored into registers. When the system provides us results after processing, then the result will also be stored in the registers. So that the registers are used by the CPU processing the data which is given by the user. Registers can perform the various task, which is given below:

1. Fetch operation

The Fetch operation is used to take the instructions which are provided by the user, and the instructions which are stored into the main memory will be fetched by using the Registers.

2. Decode process

The Decode operation is used to interpreting the instruction means that the CPU will find out what operation is to be performed on the instructions. 

3. Execute process

Execution is the process performed by CPU, such that the results produced by CPU (central processing unit) are stored into the memory, and then they are displayed on the user’s screen.

Types of register

          Various types of Registers are used for different purposes. The processor operation mostly involves processing data, and this data can be stored in memory. The processor contains several kinds of registers which can be classified according to their content.

types of Registers

           The processor register is the quickly accessible location available in the computer's central processing unit. The brief discussion of the types of registers is given below:

1. MAR (Memory Address Register)

The memory address register is the CPU registers, which either stores the memory address from which the data will be fetched from the CPU. In other words, the memory address register holds the memory location of data that needs to be accessed.

 It is one of the registers located in the computer’s processor. It is a volatile storage component that temporarily stores the address of the data sent by the memory.   

2. Program Counter

           The program counter is the register in a computer processor which contains the address of the instruction being executed at the current time. The program counter increases its stored value by 1 when each execution gets fetched. The address is the specific location in memory or storage.

           The program counter is commonly known as the instruction pointer in Intel x86 and Itanium microprocessor, and sometimes it is known as an instruction address register. It is the CPU register in the computer processor which has the address of the next instruction to be executed from memory. 

3. Accumulator Register

           The Accumulator register is a short term register and immediate storage of arithmetic and logic data in the computer’s CPU. In today’s computers, any register can perform like an accumulator. The most elementary use of an accumulator is adding the sequence of numbers.

4. Memory Data Register

           The memory buffer register commonly refers to the memory data recognizer, which is the register in the computer's processor. This register can store the data being transferred to and from the immediate access storage. It is mainly used for holding the information that is in the process of being relocated from the computer memory to the processor, or vice versa.

5. Index Register

           The index register in the computer's CPU is the processor register, which is used for modifying the operand addresses during the run of a program. The contents of the index register are added to the immediate address to form the effective address of the actual data.

           The index register is a circuit that receives stores and gives the outputs to the instruction changing codes in the computer system. This circuit is also known as the address register or register of modifications.

           The register is a data holding place in the computer processor. It can hold the instructions, the storage address, or any kind of data. The valid address of an entity in the computer system running multiple programs that comprise the base, index, and relative addresses all are stored in the index register.

          The computer system contains several index registers; sometimes, these are more than a dozen. These can operate faster than primary storage (main memory), although the part of the primary storage may be assigned to index register if needed. It improves computer performance by speeding up simple operations.  

Functions of Register

The registers are used to quickly accept, store, transfer data, and instructions, which are being used immediately by the CPU. There are many types of registers which are used for a different purpose. The register fetches the instructions from the program counter and holds every instruction as the processor executes it. The register is a temporary storage area built into a CPU. Some registers are used for internal processing and cannot be accessed outside the processor, while others are user-accessible.

Functions of Register

The internal registers include the instruction register, memory buffer register, memory data register, and memory address register. These instruction registers fetch instructions from the program counter and hold each instruction as the processor executes it.