Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is Device Driver?

Device Driver

A device driver is a specific type of programming application that permits one equipment device (like a PC) to interface with another equipment device (like a printer). A device driver may likewise be known as a product driver.

Drivers work with correspondence between a working framework and a fringe equipment device. Every driver contains information about a specific equipment device or programming connection point that different projects - including the fundamental working framework (OS) - doesn't have.

Previously, device drivers were composed for explicit working frameworks and explicit equipment peripherals. In the event that a fringe device was not perceived by their PC's OS, the end client needed to find and physically introduce the right driver.

Today, most working frameworks incorporate a library of fitting n-play drivers that permits fringe equipment to interface consequently with a working framework. This approach additionally enjoys the benefit of permitting developers to compose undeniable level application code without having to know what equipment their code will run on.

Device drivers are important to allow a PC to connect and communicate with explicit devices. They characterize the messages and systems by which the PC (OS and applications) can get to the device or make demands for the device to satisfy. They likewise handle device reactions and directives for conveyance to the PC

How Device Drivers Work

A device driver normally speaks with the equipment through the correspondence subsystem (the PC transport) to which the equipment is associated. It is fundamental that a PC have the right device drivers for every one of its parts to keep the framework running productively. While first turning on a PC, the OS works with device drivers and the essential info/yield framework (BIOS) to perform equipment assignments. Without a device driver, the OS wouldn't have the option to speak with the I/O device.

There are various types of device drivers for I/O devices such as keyboards, mice, CD/DVD drives, controllers, printers, graphics cards and ports. When a driver is included in an operating system, it may be referred to as a kernel-mode device driver. Assuming the end client needs to download and introduce a driver physically, it very well might be portrayed similar to a client mode device driver.

Device Driver vs. Programming interface

In modern times, programming engineers can utilize application programming connection points (APIs) to give their applications admittance to OS capacities and rationale an application needs to run.

For instance, engineers chipping away at applications with AI (ML) and man-made brainpower (AI) programming can utilize APIs to try not to need to stress over low-level orders for each realistic handling unit (GPU) their application is supposed to run on.

The History of the Device Driver

Innovation antiquarians taking a gander at the ascent of new advances like distributed computing and programming as-a-administration will generally view the device driver time as relating to the 1990s and resulting years, where equipment arrangements were still a lot of a piece of processing and buyer innovations.

What they find is that device drivers created a wide range of issues. For instance, an issue called "string caught in device driver" had to do with string programming experiencing issues with driver programming and crashing PCs, creating the dreaded "blue screen of death" meaning an accident in Windows.

Indeed, even as equipment availability advanced, for example, as USB connectors took over from customary pin connectors, driver programming issues continued. News from the period shows clients running from specific sorts of advancements that necessary driver establishment, for instance, peripherals or particular kinds of GPUs or network extension cards.

Large numbers of the issues of device driver programming have to do with the honors and consents expected to oblige the info/yield similarity or permit equipment pieces to "converse with each other.

Virtual Device Drivers

As equipment virtualization arose, engineers made virtual device drivers (VxD), which are device driver parts that empower direct correspondence between a virtual equipment device and an application. Virtual device drivers help to deal with the information stream to empower numerous applications to get to a similar equipment without a contention. Whenever there is an intrude on (a sign from an equipment device), the virtual device driver designs the following guidance step in light of the situation with the equipment device settings.

For instance, a virtual machine driver in a virtualization arrangement will work with IP and MAC addressing to copy an organization association for a virtual machine. A philosophical inquiry appended to the ascent of the virtual device driver is whether it's intrinsically important to have virtualized driver programming for virtual devices, or whether different availability could sidestep this customary part of figuring structures.

A valid example: the rise of distributed computing frameworks. By obtaining position customarily designated to equipment through the Internet, the cloud takes out the requirement for the overwhelming majority different various types of device drivers, or modified works them on the merchant side. That implies current clients won't be as acquainted with the device driver as others had been previously. Since all of the usefulness is taken care of by the program, there is compelling reason need to make compatibilities in a framework that is innately general or made out of one registering stream.

Be that as it may, the device driver actually fills in as a centre idea in complex registering. To the degree that these frameworks are required in a working framework climate, the device driver is as yet applicable in the cloud time.

Sorts of Device Driver

For pretty much every device related with the PC framework there exist Device Driver for the specific hardware but it tends to be extensively characterized into two sorts i.e.,

Part mode Device Driver

This Kernel-mode device driver incorporates a few conventional durable goods which loads with working System as part the OS these are BIOS, motherboard, processor and a few different equipment types which are important for piece programming. These incorporates the base framework prerequisite device drivers for each working framework.

Client mode Device Driver

Other than the devices which are brought by piece for working of the framework the client likewise bring a few devices for use during the utilizing of a framework that devices needs device drivers to capacities those drivers fall under User mode device driver. For instance, client needs any fitting and play activity that goes under this.

Virtual Device Driver

There are likewise virtual device drivers (VxD), which deals with the virtual device. Once in a while we utilize same equipment essentially around then virtual driver controls/deals with the information stream from various application utilized by various clients to a similar equipment.

It is fundamental for a PC to have the necessary device drivers for every one of its parts to keep the framework running efficiently. Many, device drivers are given by produces from starting and furthermore we can later incorporate any expected device driver for our framework.

Device Driver Examples

In the event that you run the driver query order in Windows inside PowerShell or at the order line, it will deliver a rundown of all device drivers introduced on the host PC. For Linux and macOS, running the lsmod order at an order brief likewise records device driver modules. It is to be expected for a normal PC or work area PC to list many device drivers accordingly. Looking at this result gives valuable drive data, including module name, driver type and show name used to recognize a driver.