Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device

Components

Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware

Memory

Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports

How

How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF

Questions

Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling

Difference

Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples

Misc

Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What are the most common file types and file extensions?

Many different file types and extensions are used in computers, each with its unique purpose and associated program. While memorizing all these file extensions would be difficult, understanding the most common ones can help individuals organize and navigate their files.

What are the most common file types and file extensions

Here are some of the most common file types and their associated extensions:

  • Document Files: These are typically text-based files used for storing information and include .doc, .docx, .pdf, .txt, and .rtf, among others.
  • Image Files: These are used for storing images and include .jpg, .jpeg, .png, .gif, and .bmp.
  • Audio Files: These are used for storing audio recordings and include .mp3, .wma, and .wav, among others.
  • Video Files: These are used for storing video recordings and include .mp4, .avi, and .mov, among others.
  • Executable Files: These files run programs or applications, including .exe and .msi.
  • Archive Files: These are used for compressing and storing multiple files into a single file and include .zip, .rar, and .7z, among others.

It is optional for individuals to memorize every file extension and their associated program, but having a general understanding of the most common file types and extensions can make managing files on a computer much easier.

What are the most common file types and file extensions

1) Audio File formats

There are a variety of audio file formats and extensions used to store and play audio recordings. Each format has its unique characteristics and uses. Here are some of the most common audio file formats and their associated file extensions:

.aif - AIF (Audio Interchange File Format) is a high-quality audio format often used for professional audio production. It is a standard format for Apple Macintosh computers.

.cda - CDA (Compact Disc Audio) is a file extension used for audio tracks on CDs. The tracks are not actual files but pointers to the audio data stored on the CD.

.mid or .midi - MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a file format that helps for storing and playing back digital music. MIDI files contain information about musical notes, instrument sounds, and other performance data but do not contain actual audio recordings.

.mp3 - MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3) is a widely-used audio format that compresses audio data to reduce file size while maintaining relatively high-quality sound. MP3s are commonly used for digital music and audio playback.

.mpa - MPA (MPEG-2 Audio) is a file format for storing audio data on DVD and other digital media. It is a part of the MPEG-2 standard.

.ogg - Ogg Vorbis is an open-source, patent-free audio format with high-quality sound compression. It is commonly used for audio and video streaming.

.wav - WAV (Waveform Audio File Format) is a standard audio format for Windows operating systems. WAV files are commonly used for storing and playing high-quality audio recordings.

.wma - WMA (Windows Media Audio) is a proprietary audio format developed by Microsoft. It is designed to provide high-quality audio compression while reducing file size.

.wpl - WPL (Windows Media Player Playlist) is a file format for storing playlists in Microsoft Windows Media Player. WPL files contain information about the order and location of media files in a playlist.

These are some of the most common audio file formats and extensions; many others are used in various contexts. Understanding these formats can help individuals choose the right format for their audio needs.

2) Compressed File formats

Compressed files reduce the size of one or more files, making them easier to share and store. The below-mentioned file extensions are the most commonly used file formats for compressing files on computers.

.7z: This file extension is used by 7-Zip, a popular open-source file archiving software. 7-Zip provides high compression ratios, making it an efficient file format for compressing large files.

.arj: The ARJ file extension is used by ARJ Software for its ARJ archiving software. ARJ is an older file format but is still widely used for compressing files.

.deb: The .deb file extension is used for Debian software packages. Debian is a popular Linux distribution and .deb files package software for distribution and installation on Debian-based systems.

.pkg: This file extension is used for Package files on Mac computers. Package files are used to distribute software and other files for installation on Mac systems.

.rar: RAR is a popular file format for compressing files. The .rar file extension is used for RAR files compressed using the WinRAR software.

.rpm: The .rpm file extension is used for Red Hat Package Manager (RPM) files. RPM is a popular package management system used by many Linux distributions, and .rpm files are used for packaging software for distributing and installing these systems.

.tar.gz: The .tar.gz file extension combines two formats, tar and gzip. The .tar format is used for archiving files, while the .gz format is used for compressing files. The .tar.gz file extension is used for compressed archive files.

.z: The .z file extension is used for Z-compressed files. The Z format was developed in the late 1970s and was one of the first file compression formats.

.zip: The .zip file extension is the most widely used file format for compressing files. The .zip format is supported by many operating systems and software programs, making it an easy and convenient format for sharing and storing compressed files.

3) Disc and data file extensions

Disc and media images are digital copies of a physical disc or media that contain all the data stored on the original disc or media. These images can be used for backup purposes, distributing software or content, or creating a virtual drive for mounting the image as a virtual disc. The following are the most common file extensions used for disc and media images:

.bin - A binary disc image file that contains raw data from a disc or media, including boot information and file system data.

.dmg - A disk image file used on macOS operating systems. These files are often used to distribute software and are similar to ISO images.

.iso - An ISO image file that is a standard format for distributing disc images. ISO files are widely used for distributing software, game images, and backup images of CDs and DVDs.

.toast - A disc image file used by the Toast software application for Macs. This file format is commonly used for creating backups of CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs.

.vcd - A Virtual CD file that is a disc image used for creating a virtual drive for playing video CDs on a computer.

.cue - A CUE file is a plain text file describing a disc image's layout. It provides information about the image's contents and the image file's structure.

These file extensions are essential for creating, distributing, and mounting disc and media images in different operating systems.

4) E-mail file extensions

E-mail is an essential mode of communication in the digital world and is used by millions of people daily. The e-mail messages, contacts, and templates are saved in different file formats. Here is a list of the most common file extensions used for e-mails and related files, along with a brief description.

.email - This file extension is used for e-mail messages saved in Outlook Express, an e-mail client software.

.eml - This file extension is used for e-mails saved in various e-mail clients, including Gmail. It can save and transfer e-mail messages between different e-mail clients.

.emlx - This file extension is used for e-mails saved in Apple Mail, an e-mail client software for Mac.

.msg - This file extension is used for e-mails saved in Microsoft Outlook, one of the most popular e-mail clients.

.oft - This file extension is used for e-mail templates saved in Microsoft Outlook. Templates can be used to create and send e-mails with a consistent look and feel.

.ost - This extension is used for offline e-mail storage files in Microsoft Outlook. These files store e-mails locally, allowing users to access e-mails even when not connected to the Internet.

.pst - This file extension is used for e-mail storage files in Microsoft Outlook. It can store e-mails, contacts, calendars, and other items in one file, making it easier to back up and transfer data.

.vcf - This file extension is used for e-mail contact files. It can store and transfer contact information, including name, phone number, e-mail address, etc.

5) Executable file extensions

Executable file extensions refer to file formats that can be run on a computer without additional software or tools. These files can either be run as standalone applications or with the help of an interpreter. Below is a list of the most common executable file extensions:

.apk - Android Package File: This file extension is used for software applications developed for Android devices. These files contain the code and resources required for the application to run on Android devices.

.bat - Batch File: This file extension is used for batch files, which are simple text files that contain a series of commands. Batch files are executed by the Windows Command Prompt and are used to automate repetitive tasks.

.bin - Binary File: This file extension is used for binary files containing machine-readable data. The operating system and various software applications use binary files.

.cgi or .pl - Perl Script File: This file extension is used for Perl scripts, which are used for server-side web programming. Perl scripts are executed by the web server and can be used to generate dynamic web pages.

.com - MS-DOS Command File: This file extension is used for command files in MS-DOS. MS-DOS command files contain a series of commands the operating system can execute.

.exe - Executable File: This file extension is used for executable files, which can be run directly by the operating system. Executable files contain instructions for the computer to execute.

.gadget - Windows Gadget: This file extension is used for Windows gadgets, which are small programs that run on the Windows desktop. Windows gadgets can display information and perform simple tasks.

.jar - Java Archive File: This extension is used for Java Archive files containing Java classes and resources. Java applications and applets use Java Archive files.

.msi - Windows Installer Package: This file extension is used for Windows Installer packages, which contain the instructions and resources needed to install software on a Windows computer.

.py - Python File: This file extension is used for Python files containing code written in the Python programming language. The Python interpreter can execute Python files to run the code.

.wsf - Windows Script File: This file extension is used for Windows Script files, which contain code written in a scripting language such as JScript or VBScript. The Windows Script Host can execute Windows Script files to run the code.

6) Font file extensions

Fonts are essential for creating visual designs in print and digital media. There are various font file formats, each with its purpose and compatibility. Below are the most commonly used font file extensions:

.fnt - Windows Font File: Microsoft Windows operating systems specifically use this file format. It contains bitmap character representations, meaning the font is only available in a fixed size and style. This format is used in older versions of Windows and is not widely used today.

.fon - Generic Font File: This file format is a generic font file that different operating systems can use. It contains bitmap representations of characters and is not suitable for high-quality designs.

.otf - Open Type Font: This file format is a popular font file format that provides high-quality designs. It contains both the outline and metadata of the characters, allowing for more versatile and scalable designs. This file format is widely used in design and publishing applications.

.ttf - TrueType Font: This popular file format provides high-quality designs. It uses quadratic splines to define the shape of characters, making it suitable for scalable designs. Operating systems and design applications widely support this file format.

7) Image file extension

The file extension of an image refers to the type of image format in which the image is saved. The different file extensions used for images can result in variations in the image file's quality, size, and compatibility. Some of the most commonly used image file formats are as follows:

.ai - Adobe Illustrator file: This format is used to save vector graphics created in Adobe Illustrator, a popular vector graphics editing software. The .ai file format is native to Adobe Illustrator and can only be opened in this software or other software that supports this format.

.bmp - Bitmap image: Bitmap images are digital images of individual pixels. The .bmp format is an uncompressed image format that supports high-quality images. The .bmp file format is supported by a wide range of software, making it a popular choice for images that need to be edited and shared.

.gif - GIF image: The GIF format is an image format that is widely used on the web. It supports animations and is best suited for images with limited color palettes. The .gif file format is restricted to 256 colors, making it unsuitable for high-quality images.

.ico - Icon file: Icons are small images representing files, folders, applications, and other items in a graphical user interface. The .ico format is a popular format for icons due to its support for transparency and its ability to be displayed in various sizes.

.jpeg or .jpg - JPEG image: The .jpeg file format is a commonly used format for images due to its support for high-quality images with relatively small file sizes. The .jpeg format uses lossy compression, meaning some image quality vanishes during the compression process.

.png - PNG image: The .png format is a lossless compression format well suited for images requiring high quality and transparency. The .png format is often used for graphics and logos that must be displayed on the web.

.ps - PostScript file: The .ps file format saves vector graphics created in a PostScript language. This format is used for printing and is supported by a wide range of printers.

.psd - PSD image: The .psd format is a native format used by Adobe Photoshop, a popular image editing software. The .psd format supports various image editing features, making it a popular choice for professional graphic designers.

.svg - Scalable Vector Graphics file: The .svg format is a vector graphics format used for images that can be scaled without losing quality. This format is widely used for logos, graphics, and icons that must be displayed online.

.tif or .tiff - TIFF image: The .tiff format is a high-quality image format that supports a wide range of image editing features. The .tiff format is commonly used for printing and is supported by a broad range of image editing software.

.webp - WebP image: The .webp format is designed to support high-quality images with small file sizes. The .webp format is designed to support images displayed on the web. It is becoming increasingly popular due to its support for high-quality images and small file sizes.

7) Internet-related file extensions

The Internet is a vast network of connected computers and servers, and different types of files are used to navigate and access information online. Here are some common file extensions used on the Internet and what they represent:

.asp and .aspx - Active Server Page (ASP) files are used for dynamic web content. These files are executed on a web server, and the results are then sent to the client's web

browser. ASP and ASPX are different file extensions, with ASPX being the newer and more widely used format.

.cer - A .cer file is an Internet security certificate identifying a website as secure. The certificate verifies the website's identity and encrypts the data transmitted between the website and the client's computer.

.cfm - ColdFusion Markup (CFM) files are used to develop dynamic web pages. ColdFusion is a web application development platform that allows for creating dynamic and interactive web content.

.cgi or .pl - CGI (Common Gateway Interface) scripts are server-side scripts executed on a web server to create dynamic web pages. Perl scripts are commonly used for developing CGI applications, and the .pl extension indicates a Perl script.

.css - A Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) file is used to define the layout and design of a web page. CSS files are used to control the appearance of web pages, including font size, color, and spacing.

.htm and .html - HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) files are the building blocks of web pages. HTML files contain the content and structure of web pages, including text, images, and links.

.js - A JavaScript file adds interactivity and dynamic behavior to web pages. JavaScript is a client-side scripting language that allows for creating interactive elements, such as drop-down menus and pop-up windows.

.jsp - Java Server Pages (JSP) files are used to develop dynamic web pages using Java programming. JSP files are executed on a web server, and the results are sent to the client's browser.

.part - A .part file is a partially downloaded file. When a user downloads a file from the Internet, the file is often saved in multiple parts, and each part is saved with a .part extension until the download is complete.

.php - PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) files create dynamic web pages. PHP is a server-side scripting language for building interactive and dynamic web content.

.py - A .py file is a Python script file. Python is a high-level programming language commonly used for web development, scientific computing, and data analysis.

.rss - An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) file is used to publish content on the Internet in a standardized format. RSS files create and distribute content to a wide audience, such as news articles, blog posts, and podcast episodes.

.xhtml - XHTML (Extensible Hypertext Markup Language) files are similar to HTML files but adhere to stricter standards. XHTML files create well-structured, good web pages compatible with various devices and browsers.

8) Presentation file format by file extension

A presentation file is a digital document showcasing information in a slide-by-slide format, often including images, text, charts, graphs, and multimedia elements. There are several popular presentation software programs, each using a unique file extension to save its presentations.

.key: This file extension is associated with Keynote, a presentation software program that is part of Apple's iWork suite of productivity tools. Keynote presentations are saved in the .key format and can include various elements such as images, charts, tables, and multimedia content.

.odp: OpenOffice Impress is a free, open-source presentation software similar to Microsoft PowerPoint. Impress presentations are saved in the .odp format, which can be opened by other programs that support the Open Document Format.

.pps: This file extension is associated with PowerPoint slide shows. A PowerPoint slide show displays each slide in full-screen mode, one after the other, without manually advancing the slides.

.ppt: Microsoft PowerPoint, a popular presentation software program, uses this file extension. PowerPoint presentations can contain various elements such as text, images, charts, graphs, and multimedia content.

.pptx: This file extension is used by the latest version of Microsoft PowerPoint, and it is a type of Open XML file. Open XML is a new format for saving and exchanging documents that is becoming increasingly popular due to its improved security and interoperability features.

9) Programming file extension

Programming files are the source code files to create software applications, web applications, and other computer programs. These files contain the computer's instructions and logic to perform specific tasks. There are many programming languages, each with its syntax and conventions, and each uses a unique file extension to identify the type of source code file.

.c: This file extension is used for C and C++ source code files. C and C++ are popular, low-level programming languages widely used to develop system software, device drivers, and other applications.

.cgi and .pl: These file extensions are associated with Perl, a popular scripting language for web development, system administration, and other purposes. Perl scripts are text files containing Perl code that the Perl interpreter can execute.

.class: This file extension is used for Java class files. Java is a high-level, object-oriented programming language widely used to generate desktop applications, web applications, and other software.

.cpp: This file extension is used for C++ source code files. C++ is an extension of the C language that adds support for object-oriented programming and other features.

.cs: This file extension is used for Visual C# source code files. C# is a modern, object-oriented programming language widely used to develop Windows desktop applications and Store apps.

.h: This file extension is used for C, C++, and Objective-C header files. Header files contain definitions and declarations that multiple source code files can share.

.java: This file extension is used for Java source code files. Java is a high-level, object-oriented programming language widely used to generate desktop applications, web applications, and other software.

.php: This file extension is associated with PHP, a server-side scripting language widely used for web development. PHP scripts are text files containing PHP code that a PHP interpreter can execute.

.py: This file extension is associated with Python, a high-level, interpreted programming language widely used for scripting, data analysis, and other purposes. Python scripts are text files that contain Python code and can be executed by the Python interpreter.

.sh: This file extension is associated with Bash shell scripts. Shell scripts are text files containing shell commands that a shell interpreter can execute.

.swift: This file extension is associated with Swift, a high-performance, multi-paradigm programming language widely used for developing iOS, iPadOS, macOS, and watchOS applications.

.vb: This file extension is associated with Visual Basic, a high-level, object-oriented programming language widely used to develop Windows desktop applications and other software.

10) Spreadsheet file format

A spreadsheet is a document that keeps data in a grid of cells organized in rows and columns. It is used for data organization, analysis, and calculations. There are several file formats for saving spreadsheet documents, including:

.ods - This file extension is used for OpenOffice Calc spreadsheet files. OpenOffice Calc is a free and open-source spreadsheet application that allows users to create & edit spreadsheets.

.xls - This file extension is used for Microsoft Excel files. Microsoft Excel is a largely used spreadsheet application that provides users with powerful tools for data organization, analysis, and calculation.

.xlsm - This file extension is used for Microsoft Excel files that contain macros. Macros are a set of instructions that automate tasks in a spreadsheet.

.xlsx - This file extension is used for Microsoft Excel Open XML spreadsheet files. Open XML is a file format used by Microsoft Office that enables users to share data and documents between different applications.

Each of these file formats has its advantages and disadvantages. For example, the .xlsx format provides better compatibility with different platforms and applications but may not be compatible with older versions of Microsoft Excel. On the other hand, the .xls format has better compatibility with older versions of Microsoft Excel, but it may not be compatible with newer versions or other platforms. Ultimately, the choice of file format will depend on the user's specific needs and requirements.

11) System-related file formats

Below is a detailed explanation of the most common system-related file formats and extensions.

.bak - Backup file: Backup files contain a copy of the original data or file. It is usually created as a backup of a current file in case the original is lost or damaged. Backup files are saved with a .bak file extension and can be used to restore the original file if needed.

.cab - Windows Cabinet file: Cabinet files are compressed archive files used by Windows operating systems to store installation files. They are commonly used for software installation and contain multiple files and folders compressed into one file. The .cab file extension is used for cabinet files.

.cfg - Configuration file: Configuration files store settings or configurations for computer programs and operating systems. The .cfg file extension is commonly used for these files.

.cpl - Windows Control panel file: Control Panel files are used to launch the Windows control panel applets, which manage various system settings. The .cpl file extension is used for these files.

.cur - Windows cursor file: Cursor files store and display the mouse pointer image in Windows operating systems. The .cur file extension is used for cursor files.

.dll - DLL file: DLL files, also known as dynamic link library files, contain instructions or functions that multiple programs can use. They are used to store common code that multiple programs can access, making the programs more efficient. The .dll file extension is used for DLL files.

.dmp - Dump file: Dump files are created when an application or operating system encounters an error and crashes. The dump file contains information about the system's state during the crash and can be used to diagnose and resolve the problem. The .dmp file extension is used for dump files.

.drv - Device driver file: Device driver files are utilized by the operating system to communicate with hardware devices. The .drv file extension is used for device driver files.

.icns - macOS X icon resource file: Icon resource files store icons in the macOS X operating system. The .icns file extension is used for icon resource files in macOS X.

.ico - Icon file: Icon files store icons for computer programs and files. The .ico file extension is used for icon files.

.ini - Initialization file: Initialization files store settings and configurations for computer programs and operating systems. The .ini file extension is commonly used for these files.

.lnk - Windows shortcut file: Shortcut files create shortcuts to other files or programs. The .lnk file extension is used for shortcut files in Windows operating systems.

.msi - Windows installer package: MSI files are used by Windows operating systems to install software programs. The .msi file extension is used for Windows installer packages.

.sys - Windows system file: System files are essential files the Windows operating system utilizes to operate correctly. They are critical and should only be modified or deleted if instructed to do so by an expert. The .sys file extension is used for Windows system files.

.tmp - Temporary file: Temporary files are created by the operating system or by applications to store data temporarily. The .tmp file extension is commonly used for temporary files.

12) Video file format

Video files come in various formats that determine the compression, compatibility, and Digital Rights Management (DRM) applied to the video. The following is a list of the most common file extensions used for video files:

.3g2: 3GPP2 multimedia file format. It is a video file format that is optimized for mobile devices. It is widely used on mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets, and laptops.

.3gp: 3GPP multimedia file format. It is a video file format optimized for mobile devices and balances file size and quality.

.avi: AVI (Audio Video Interleave) file format. It is a widely used video file format that balances file size and quality well. It is compatible with most media players and operating systems.

.flv: Adobe Flash file format. It is a popular video file format used for online streaming and is compatible with Adobe Flash Player.

.h264: H.264 video file format. It is a widely used video compression format that provides high-quality video while keeping the file size small.

.m4v: Apple MP4 video file format. It is a video file format commonly used on Apple devices and is compatible with iTunes and other Apple software.

.mkv: Matroska Multimedia Container file format. It is an open-source video file format that provides flexibility and supports various video and audio codecs.

.mov: Apple QuickTime movie file format. It is a widely used video file format on Apple devices and is compatible with QuickTime Player.

.mp4: MPEG4 video file format. It is a widely used video file format that balances file size and quality well.

.mpg or .mpeg: MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) video file format. It is a widely used video file format that balances file size and quality well.

.rm: RealMedia file format. It is a video file format developed by RealNetworks and used for online streaming and downloading.

.swf: Shockwave flash file format. It is a video file format used for online streaming and is widely used on websites that require interactive elements.

.vob: DVD Video Object file format. It is a video file format used on DVDs and provides high-quality video.

.webm: WebM video file format. It is a video file format used for online streaming and is supported by most web browsers.

.wmv: Windows Media Video file format. It is a video file format widely used on Microsoft Windows operating systems and compatible with Windows Media Player.

13) Word processing and text file format:

Word processing and text file formats are used to create and save written documents on a computer. The most commonly used file extensions in this category are:

.doc and .docx - Microsoft Word file is a proprietary format created by Microsoft for creating, editing, and formatting text-based documents. .docx is the default file format for Word documents in the latest version of Microsoft Office, while .doc is used in older versions.

.odt - OpenOffice Writer document file is an open-source alternative to Microsoft Word. It is used to create, edit, and save text documents and is compatible with multiple operating systems.

.pdf - PDF (Portable Document Format) file is a widely used format that preserves any source document's fonts, images, graphics, and layout, regardless of the software and hardware used to create it.

.rtf - Rich Text Format is a text file format supported by many word processors and editors. It allows for creating formatted text documents using different fonts, sizes, colors, and styles.

.tex - A LaTeX document file is a typesetting language used for technical or scientific documents, particularly in academic settings. It is commonly used for creating documents that include mathematical equations, scientific formulas, and technical diagrams.

.txt - Plain text file is a simple text-only file containing unformatted text. It is the most basic and universally supported file format for text documents.

.wpd - WordPerfect document is a word processing file format used by WordPerfect, a popular word processor program. It is used for creating and editing text documents and supports formatting, images, and tables.