Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device

Components

Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware

Memory

Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports

How

How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc

Questions

Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post

Difference

Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs

Misc

Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick

RAM (Random Access Memory) Vs. ROM (Read Only Memory)

RAM (Random Access Memory) Vs. ROM (Read Only Memory)

There are several differences between the Random access memory and read-only memory which is given below:

RAM (Random Access Memory ) ROM (Read Only Memory)
1. The RAM is the volatile memory which can store the data as long as the electric power is supplied. 1. The ROM is the non-volatile memory, which can store the data even the electrical power supply is turned off. The data or information is saved in the absence of electrical power in this memory.
2. The data or information stored in RAM can be retrieved or altered. 2. We are not able to retrieve or change the information or data which is stored in ROM memory. The data stored in the ROM memory is only readable data.
3. The RAM is high-speed memory. 3. The ROM memory is quite slower than RAM.
4. It is used to store the data that has been currently processed by the CPU temporarily. 4. The Read-only memory is used to store the instructions which are required during the bootstrap of the computer.
5. The CPU can access the data which is stored in volatile memory. 5. The CPU cannot access that data which is stored in non-volatile memory.
6. Random-access memory is large in size with higher capacity. 6. The Read-only memory is small in size with less capacity.
7. The RAM is used as CPU cache memory in the primary memory. 7. ROM is used as the firmware, in the microcontroller.
8. It is very costly as compared to other memory of the computer system. 8. It is cheaper than the Random access memory.
9. The data is easily accessible in the RAM. 9. The information or data is not easily available in ROM as compared to RAM.
10. The RAM chip is used in the ordinary operations of the computer, once the operating system is loaded.  10. The ROM chip is used primarily in the startup process of the computer.
11. The RAM chip memory can store the data in the Gigabytes, and the range is 1 to 256 GB per chip. 11. The ROM chip memory can store the data in Megabytes, and the range is 4 to 8 MB per chip.
12. We can say that the RAM is used for the temporary storage of data.  12. The ROM memory is used for the permanent storage of data.
13. The data can be accessed Randomly at any time, in any order, and from any physical location; it allows quick access and manipulation of data. 13. The ROM contains programming which is needed to start the computer, that programming is essential for the boot-up before the system software loads.
14. Random-access memory is the chip that is in the form of a rectangle and inserted over the motherboard of the computer. 14. The Read-only memories are generally the optical drivers which are made of magnetic tapes.
15. RAM is categorized into two types they are: Static Random access memory (SRAM) and Dynamic Random access memory (DRAM). 15. ROM is divided into three types: they are PROM (Programmable Read-only memory), EPROM (Erasable programmable Read-only memory) and EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-only memory).
16. The user can perform both read and write operations on that data or information which is stored in RAM. 16.  ROM memory allows the user to read the information or data, but we cannot perform the write operation in ROM.

DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) Vs. SRAM (Static Random Access Memory)

DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) SRAM (Static Random Access Memory)  
1. The Dynamic Random access memory is made up of tiny capacitors that leak the electricity. 1. Static Random access memory is composed of circuits which are similar to D flip-flops.
2. The DRAM generates less heat when it is working.  2. The SRAM generates more heat.
3. It uses less electrical power. 3. It uses more electricity power when this memory is active.
4. Dynamic RAM is used for the main memory.  4.  The Static RAM is used for the cache memory.
5. We can store many bits per chip of DRAM. 5. The SRAM is not capable of storing many bits per chip.
6.  It is not more expensive. 6. The Static Random access memory is costly than the other memories.
7. It requires the recharge every few seconds to maintain the data or information. 7. The Static RAM holds the data or information as long as the electric power is available.
8. It uses the single transistor and capacitor for each memory cell. 8. It uses the array of six transistors to each memory cell.
9. The data accessibility is slower of Dynamic Random access memory. 9. Data accessibility is faster as compared to DRAM.
10. We need to refresh the memory cell after each reading of the capacitor in the Dynamic RAM. 10. The Static RAM does not require a refresh cycle to the memory cell.
11. The DRAM has a high density. 11. The SRAM has a low density as compared to Dynamic Random access memory.
12. It has a simply designed structure. 12. It has a sophisticated structure design due to flip-flop.
13. Dynamic Random access memory is present on the motherboard. 13. The Static Random access memory is present on the processors or between the Processor and main memory.
14. The size of dynamic RAM is 1GB to 2 GB in smartphones and tablets, 4GB to 16 GB in laptops. 14. The size of Static RAM is 1MB to 16 MB.
15. The Dynamic RAM is not fast in speed as compared to static RAM. 15. The speed rate of static RAM is very fast.
16.  The DRAM requires more time to access the data or information. 16. The SRAM requires a minimum time to access the data.
17. Dynamic Random access memory is used in the main memory. 17. The static Random access memory is used in cache memory.