Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

RAM (Random Access Memory) Vs. ROM (Read Only Memory)

RAM (Random Access Memory) Vs. ROM (Read Only Memory)

There are several differences between the Random access memory and read-only memory which is given below:

RAM (Random Access Memory ) ROM (Read Only Memory)
1. The RAM is the volatile memory which can store the data as long as the electric power is supplied. 1. The ROM is the non-volatile memory, which can store the data even the electrical power supply is turned off. The data or information is saved in the absence of electrical power in this memory.
2. The data or information stored in RAM can be retrieved or altered. 2. We are not able to retrieve or change the information or data which is stored in ROM memory. The data stored in the ROM memory is only readable data.
3. The RAM is high-speed memory. 3. The ROM memory is quite slower than RAM.
4. It is used to store the data that has been currently processed by the CPU temporarily. 4. The Read-only memory is used to store the instructions which are required during the bootstrap of the computer.
5. The CPU can access the data which is stored in volatile memory. 5. The CPU cannot access that data which is stored in non-volatile memory.
6. Random-access memory is large in size with higher capacity. 6. The Read-only memory is small in size with less capacity.
7. The RAM is used as CPU cache memory in the primary memory. 7. ROM is used as the firmware, in the microcontroller.
8. It is very costly as compared to other memory of the computer system. 8. It is cheaper than the Random access memory.
9. The data is easily accessible in the RAM. 9. The information or data is not easily available in ROM as compared to RAM.
10. The RAM chip is used in the ordinary operations of the computer, once the operating system is loaded.  10. The ROM chip is used primarily in the startup process of the computer.
11. The RAM chip memory can store the data in the Gigabytes, and the range is 1 to 256 GB per chip. 11. The ROM chip memory can store the data in Megabytes, and the range is 4 to 8 MB per chip.
12. We can say that the RAM is used for the temporary storage of data.  12. The ROM memory is used for the permanent storage of data.
13. The data can be accessed Randomly at any time, in any order, and from any physical location; it allows quick access and manipulation of data. 13. The ROM contains programming which is needed to start the computer, that programming is essential for the boot-up before the system software loads.
14. Random-access memory is the chip that is in the form of a rectangle and inserted over the motherboard of the computer. 14. The Read-only memories are generally the optical drivers which are made of magnetic tapes.
15. RAM is categorized into two types they are: Static Random access memory (SRAM) and Dynamic Random access memory (DRAM). 15. ROM is divided into three types: they are PROM (Programmable Read-only memory), EPROM (Erasable programmable Read-only memory) and EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-only memory).
16. The user can perform both read and write operations on that data or information which is stored in RAM. 16.  ROM memory allows the user to read the information or data, but we cannot perform the write operation in ROM.

DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) Vs. SRAM (Static Random Access Memory)

DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) SRAM (Static Random Access Memory)  
1. The Dynamic Random access memory is made up of tiny capacitors that leak the electricity. 1. Static Random access memory is composed of circuits which are similar to D flip-flops.
2. The DRAM generates less heat when it is working.  2. The SRAM generates more heat.
3. It uses less electrical power. 3. It uses more electricity power when this memory is active.
4. Dynamic RAM is used for the main memory.  4.  The Static RAM is used for the cache memory.
5. We can store many bits per chip of DRAM. 5. The SRAM is not capable of storing many bits per chip.
6.  It is not more expensive. 6. The Static Random access memory is costly than the other memories.
7. It requires the recharge every few seconds to maintain the data or information. 7. The Static RAM holds the data or information as long as the electric power is available.
8. It uses the single transistor and capacitor for each memory cell. 8. It uses the array of six transistors to each memory cell.
9. The data accessibility is slower of Dynamic Random access memory. 9. Data accessibility is faster as compared to DRAM.
10. We need to refresh the memory cell after each reading of the capacitor in the Dynamic RAM. 10. The Static RAM does not require a refresh cycle to the memory cell.
11. The DRAM has a high density. 11. The SRAM has a low density as compared to Dynamic Random access memory.
12. It has a simply designed structure. 12. It has a sophisticated structure design due to flip-flop.
13. Dynamic Random access memory is present on the motherboard. 13. The Static Random access memory is present on the processors or between the Processor and main memory.
14. The size of dynamic RAM is 1GB to 2 GB in smartphones and tablets, 4GB to 16 GB in laptops. 14. The size of Static RAM is 1MB to 16 MB.
15. The Dynamic RAM is not fast in speed as compared to static RAM. 15. The speed rate of static RAM is very fast.
16.  The DRAM requires more time to access the data or information. 16. The SRAM requires a minimum time to access the data.
17. Dynamic Random access memory is used in the main memory. 17. The static Random access memory is used in cache memory.