Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device

Components

Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware

Memory

Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports

How

How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc

Questions

Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post

Difference

Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs

Misc

Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick

Middle-level language in Computer

The middle-level language lies in between the low level and high-level language. C language is the middle-level language. By using the C language, the user is capable of doing the system programming for writing operating system as well as application programming. The Java and C++ are also middle-level languages.

The middle-level programming language interacts with the abstraction layer of a computer system. It serves as the bridge between the raw hardware and programming layer of the computer system. The middle-level language is also known as the intermediate programming language and pseudo-language.

The middle-level language is an output of any programming language, which is known as source code. The source code is written in a high-level language. This kind of middle-level language is designed to improve the translated code before the processor executes it.

The improvement schedule helps to adjust the source code according to the computational framework of the target machine of various languages. The processor of CPU does not directly execute the source code of the middle-level language. It needs interpretation into binary code for the execution.

middle level language

The C language is the middle-level language because it has only 32 keywords: it takes less translation time like low-level language. We can do many works of low-level language through C language. There is a different type of data types used in the C language. The four common data types which are: char, int, float, double, etc. Each data type plays a unique role in the C language.

We can access hardware devices easily with the help of the C language. The C language also binds the gap between machine level language and high-level language. In 1972, the C language was used to create the UNIX operating system.

The C language is the middle-level language due to its features which are given below:

1) Fast and Efficient

The program execution of C is high-speed and efficient due to its variety of data type and powerful operators. The C language directly converts the code into machine language and run it. The C language is more optimized, and the performance of C is better than other higher languages.  

middle level language 1

2) Rich library functions

There are inbuilt library functions in C language which are grouped and placed in a common place, known as the library. Every library function in C language can perform the specific operations.

These library functions are created by those persons who designed and invented the compiler of C language. All the C Standard library functions are declared in many header files which are saved as file_name.h. We can also use these library functions to get the pre-defined output.

3) Portable

The portability of C source code means that we can move our C language source code at any machine without modifying the single line of code. The C language is not tied to any hardware or system. It is hardware-independent language or platform-independent.

4) Modularity

Modular programming is the process of subdividing the computer program into separate subprograms. The module is the separate software component. It can be used in a variety of applications and functions with other elements of the system.  

5) Easy to extend

The C programming language can extend itself.  We can easily extend the code of the C language. The keywords are those words whose meaning is already defined by the compiler in C language.

The C keywords are also known as reserve words. There are some keywords which are very useful in C language such as const, static, void, typedef, etc. The constant variable must be initialized at the time of declaration. Const keyword of C language is also used with the pointers.

6) Variety of data type and dominant operators  

Every variable in C language has associated data type. It needs a different amount of memory. The data types have some specific operations which can perform over it. All the data types have different ranges up to which they can store numbers. The operators in C language allow us to perform a different kind of operations on operands. There are mainly three types of operators exist in C language:

  1. Unary Operator.
  2. Binary Operator.
  3. Ternary Operator.

The operators are the foundation for any programming language; C language has a wide range of operators to perform different operations. The Unary arithmetic operators are of two types: Increment operators and decrements operators. The Binary operators can be divided into five categories, which are given below:

  1. Arithmetic Operator
  2. Relational Operator
  3. Logical Operator
  4. Bit-wise Operator
  5. Assignment Operator

The ternary operator is also known as the conditional operator. The arithmetic operators are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, modulus, etc.

7) Recursion

The C language supports the recursion feature. The recursion process is the repeating process to call itself again and again in a similar way. The programmers need to be careful when they are using recursion to define an exit condition from the function. Otherwise, the loop will go into a finite situation.

8) Structured

The C language is also known as structured programming language because we can solve the massive problems by using this language. The C language divides the problem into small modules called functions or procedures. Those programs which explain the whole problem is the collection of such functions.

9) Simple

The C language is mainly developed for system programming to write the operating system. It is also used for the compiler development. The C language has a simple set of keywords and low-level access to memory.

10) Extensible

The C language can extend the compiler and run time environment. We can split the program into such named blocks, which are known as functions. The program in C is written in three structure: decisions, sequences, and loops.  

11) Mid-level

The C language is also known as the middle-level language because we can do system programming as well as application programming in this language. We can develop the operating system with the help of the C language.

12) Pointers

The pointers play a crucial role in C language. These are used to store and manage the addresses of dynamically allocated blocks in memory of the computer system. There is the null pointer in C, and its value is zero. The size of any pointer is 2 byte for the 16-bit compiler. The C pointer is always initialized to null; if a pointer in C is assigned to null, it means that pointer is pointing to nothing.