Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

When was the first computer invented?

There is no clear account of the invention of the first computer. Several variants of the computer were developed simultaneously, so it is not easy to track the development of the first computer, and it is confusing to reach a conclusion. Charles Baggage is credited with developing the first mechanical computer in 1822.

When was the first computer invented?

Let us discuss various significant events in the development of the first computer.

When was the term computer coined?

The first time the term computer was used by R. Braithwaite in his book The Yong Mans Gleanings, defined the machine that could compute calculations. They could perform additional functions, but the main purpose was to perform the calculation.

The First Mechanical Computer

When was the first computer invented?

Charles Babbage developed the first mechanical computer, and it was an automatic machine that could perform computations. Its functions include performing complex calculations on numerical values. It allowed the user to print hard copies of the computational results. Charles Babbage worked with Ada Lovelace to build the first Difference Engine. But due to insufficient funds, Babbage was not able to complete the machine. In 1991, the London Science Museum further developed the Difference Engine 2 and developed a mechanism that allowed the user to print the hard copies of the result.

The first General Purpose Computer

When was the first computer invented?

Charles Babbage also proposed the design of the first general mechanical computer. It was called the Analytical Engine, which was somewhat similar to the computers we use today. It had a flow control consisting of an Arithmetic Logical Unit responsible for performing Arithmetic and Logical operations on the operand. It also had an integrated memory. This computer was able to perform basic calculations. Though, Charles Babbage could not complete the development of the machine due to a lack of funds. The development of the machine was continued by his youngest son Henry Babbage.

The concept of the first Programmable Computer

When was the first computer invented?

Konrad Zuse was a German developer who developed the Z1 computer in the living room of his parents' house. It was the first computer that operated like modern computers. It is regarded as the first electromechanical computer programmed in binary language.

The Concept behind the First Modern Computer

Alan Turning developed the Turning Machine that formed the basic operational unit for performing computing in any device, including computers. It allowed the machine to print the symbols in a way that generates a reaction from a person by following a series of logical steps. The turning machine was introduced in 1936.

The First Electric Programmable Computer

T. Flowers developed the first electric programmable computer in 1943, and he named the system Colossus. This computer was of great help as it was used to decipher the German messages by the British.

The First Digital Computers

In 1937, Vincent Atanasoff and Cliff Berry began to develop the AB Computer. They started in 1937 and continued working on developing the system until 1942. They used more than 300 vacuum tubes in the system to perform computation digitally. The system could not perform any programming as it had no processing unit.

In 1973 two people named John Mauchly and J. Presper filed the patent for the first digital computer. This computer was fully functional and performed all the computations digitally. The computer was equipped with almost 18,000 vacuum tubes and occupied almost 1800 square feet. It was a quite heavy set-up and almost weighed 50 tons. But their patent was rejected by the US Federal Judge, who ruled that the first digital computer developed was ABC instead of ENIAC. However, many programmers and developers still regard ENIAC as the first fully functional computer.

When was the first computer invented?

The First Stored Program Computer

The first computer program is called SSM. It stands for Small-Scale Experimental Machine. It was developed by a teacher Geoff Tootill and his

student T. Kilburn at the University of Manchester. Therefore it is also called the Manchester Baby. It was the first program that could be stored in the computer's memory. The program was stored electronically in the system's memory. The task performed by the program was to compute the highest factor of an integer. The program calculated the number factor by performing repetitive subtraction instead of division. The program was first executed on the computer at the University of Manchester by Tom Kilburn on 21 June 1948.

The Second Stored Program

The Second Stored Program was also developed in England. It was developed at the University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory. M.Wilkes developed the program. It was first used for computation on 6 May 1949. The program was called EDSAC. Its primary function was to perform calculations, but it was also provided with implementing a tic-tac-toe game. The user can play the game that was displayed on a 6-inch CRT.

One more system was developed that could store the programs and execute the programs. The system's name is Manchester Mark 1. the first version of this stem was developed in 1949 at the Victoria University of Manchester. This system was able to execute software programs stored in the system. It was operated for nine hours without requiring to search for Mersenne primes.

All the computers developed until this time were developed for research and were quite expensive. These systems were not available for commercial use.

The First Commercial Computer

When was the first computer invented?

The first time commercial computer was introduced to the market by Konrad Zuse in 1942. The name of the computer was Z4. A mathematician purchased it in 1950.

The First Computer Company

John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert established the first computer company in 1949. The company's name was Electronic Controls Company which was later changed to Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company. This company developed and launched a series of mainframe computers. The mainframe computers were launched under the name UNIVAC.

Th first commercial computer that enabled the user to store the program in the system's memory and was able to execute it was UNIVAC 1101. It was sold to the US Government. IBM introduced its first scientific, commercial computer in April 1953.

There has been no company that had RAM or could display real-time graphics. They had only storage to store limited programs.

The First Computer With Random Access Memory

Whirlwind Machine was the first computer with a magnetic core RAM inside it. It enabled the user to view real-time graphics from the system. MIT built the system in March 1955. This system was a revolutionary invention in the field of computers.

In 1956, TX-0 was introduced at MIT; it was the first transistorized computer. It was the first computer that had transistors instead of tubes. After a few years, another transistorized computer was developed by the Digital Equipment Corporation. It was called the PDP-1 and was launched in 1960 by the company. It was the first minicomputer too.

The First Desktop that was Mass Produced

Olivetti released Programm 101, introduced during the New York World Fair in 1964. It was the first computer that could be mass-produced. The company introduced the computer to the public. The company sold more than 44000 models. It cost around $3200. The computer that was introduced to the market was HP 9100A. Hewlett Packard did the marketing campaign.

The First Workstation

When was the first computer invented?

The first workstation was Xerox Alto, also regarded as the mother of all demos. This was the first computer that had all the components required for a computer to function on its own. It was a functional system that came with a mouse and keyboards. The working of the workstation was similar to that of a normal system. It had icons and menus and the interface of the OS. This model was not sold. Intel also launched the first microprocessor in the market. It was Intel 4004, and it was a great revolution as it was used in the computer to perform processing tasks and drastically reduced the size and cost of building the computer.

The First Personal Computer

When was the first computer invented?

The term personal computer was coined when Ed Roberts introduced the Altair 8800 in the market. The first personal computer estimated about $750. It was the KENBAK-1 that took input and produced the out by using switches. There were a series of switches on the computer. The input was recorded, and the output was produced using turning on and off the lights using the switches.

A Vietnamese-French Engineer built the first microcomputer. His name was Andre Troung Thi. It was launched in 1973, and the model's name was Micral Computer. The cost of the model was $1750. It had Intel 8008 embedded in it.

The First Portable Computer

When was the first computer invented?

IBM launched the first portable system. It had a 1.9 Megahertz palm processor and a 5-inch cathode ray tube display. The computer came with a 64 KB RAM and a tape drive. The weight of the system was 55 pounds.

The Adam Osborne Company launched the Osborne. It was the first laptop on the market. It enabled the user to perform all the necessary tasks. It had two floppy drives. It provided a 5-inch display with 64 KB memory. The cost of this model was $1795. The weight of Osborne I was considerably very less than any of the predecessors. It weighed about 24 pounds.

IBM also launched the IBM portable, developed by the IBM PC Division, in 1984. the weight was about 30 pounds. Later, the company introduced a PC Convertible Computer, the first laptop computer that only weighed 12 pounds. It finally led to the development of the first notebook, the IBM ThinkPad 775CD. It was launched in 1994 by the company.

The first Apple Computer

When was the first computer invented?

Apple launched Apple I in 1976. It was a complete computer kit that was sold for about $666. This kit had a fully assembled circuit board. The system had a 6502 8-bit processor. It had inbuilt 4 KB memory that could be extended up to 48 KB. The user required a display, keyboard and power supply to operate the kit.