Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What is WAP?

WAP or Wireless Application Protocol was released in 1999. This protocol allows users to communicate through a wireless network such as mobile phones, tablets, etc. This protocol became quite popular in the 2000s. This provides the user with a way to develop web applications specifically for mobile browsers, which supports a wide range of wireless networks. These networks are GSM, CDMA, and TDMA.

With the increase in wireless devices and technologies used, WAP is supported by all operating systems. Wireless Application Protocol allows users to access the internet services on a wireless device using a wireless markup language. This markup language is also known as the XML 1.0 application. This protocol enhances the wireless specification of the wireless devices and increases the efficiency of the device connecting to the internet.

This protocol can be implemented on any operating system, though it is preferred for mobile phones as they can deliver information through electronic signals. This protocol has its dedicated forum founded by Motorola, Unwired Planet, Nokia, and Ericson in 1998. This forum aims to regularize the standards of wireless technologies by implementing these protocols. The WAP also provides CSS that enables the user to design the display of the web application and format its size.

The user is not required to manually adjust the display size as it manages the page layout according to the size of the screen of the device and ensures that the application is compatible with it.

Furthermore, the transport layer manages any issue with the physical network or its component. This layer provides access to the wireless gateways by global wireless operations. The WAP gateway act as a server through which the user can connect to a wireless network. WAP has its dedicated forum, which provides an option for specification development and tool testing. It is accessible by all mobile wireless networks. This forum is known as the Open Mobile Alliance.

WAP Model

In any wireless device, to access the wireless network user needs to connect to a wireless network and then open the web browser and visit the web pages. The URL request of the web page is sent to the WAP gateway. To forward a request, the network uses the WAP protocol. This request is made up of the gateway over the internet, which is then converted into an HTTP URL request. The Web server is responsible for answering the request made by the user. The response is transferred in the form of WML files. This file is transferred through the WAP gateway, and the content of the web page will be presented on the device.

WAP Protocol Stack

WAP Protocol is implemented over several layers stacked upon each other. These layers are:

  • Application Layer
  • Session Layer
  • Transaction Layer
  • Security Layer
  • Transport Layer
What is WAP

Application Layer

This layer stores the information about the content and its representation. This layer is known as the Wireless Application Environment and is responsible for setting up the view of the web application. It contains the programming language such as WML files and other application specifications that affect the display. The function performed by this layer is similar to that of JavaScript. This layer contains all the tools used by the content developers to create web pages. It includes scripting languages that can be used in WML files.

Session Layer

This layer contains the information about the session. The session can be of two types:

  1. Connection-less
  2. Connection-Oriented

This layer determines the information related to the connection of the network. It determines whether the connection between the devices sharing the data can be connection-less or connection-oriented. The connection allows the user to reconnect with the network and quick connection suspension. The users can communicate and share the data in both directions in the connection-oriented session. In contrast, the connection-less session is preferred when the user needs to broadcast the data to a device. Wireless Session Protocol sends the packet to the Wireless Transaction Protocol in the connection-oriented session. The packet is transferred to the Wireless Datagram Protocol layer in the connection-less session.

Transaction Layer

This layer is a part of the Transfer Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol responsible for offering transaction support, and it ensures that each transaction process is performed smoothly. This layer works on the top of User Datagram Protocol.

Security Layer

This layer is responsible for the secure transmission of the data. The network security is provided regarding privacy, integrity, and authentication. This layer also acts as the transport layer and ensures the data transfer without any loss.

Transport Layer

This layer act as the carrier for the data. The Wireless Datagram Protocol functions work under each other. It provides a fixed format to the layer above the transport layer in the WAP protocol stack. 

Components Of Wireless Application Protocol

Wireless Application Protocol constitutes of the following components. There are three components in WAP.

Protocol Support: This component is responsible for transforming the protocol, and it hooks the server code to the website and then waits until a connection is established. There are two types of networks:

IP Networks: Protocol Support contains the following protocols: HTTP, TLS, and multiple versions of TCP.

Non-IP Networks: It constitutes four layers; these layer does not require any internet protocol to govern them. These layers include Transport Layer, Datagram and Session Protocol, and Transaction Protocol.

Application Environment: This component stores the actual application; it determines the environment that contains the application during the various life cycles of the application. It contains all the elements required by the application during its life cycle to function properly.

The application Environment includes WML (Wireless Markup Language) files; these files define the structure of the wireless application and are based on technologies like HTML, XML, or XHTML.

This also contains the files that provide the scripting specification for the web application. These files contain the code that works on the client-side. They are similar to JavaScript.

WAP Micro Browser: This is also a part of the Application Environment. This component is particularly responsible for managing the website for wireless devices. This enables the user to run the application with limited resources.

Services and Capabilities: This component is responsible for providing various services and technological support to the user. This component allows users to make changes to the web application. This allows performing changes in the content using the servers.

WAP phones can deploy function as web devices. This assists the user in case of technical failure. It also provides telephonic services.

Advantages Of Wireless Application Protocol

This protocol is used for implementing wireless applications on various wireless devices such as mobile phones and tablets. There are many advantages of using these protocols; some of these advantages are:

  • Portability: Using Wireless Application Protocol, we can implement web applications on various devices using proprietary protocols. When the user can port the device to a different type of network, this requires completely changing the code. The user needs to rewrite the entire code. 

It enables the user to run the web application on devices with limited processing power, a small screen, and a relatively smaller battery. It also reduces the range of the bandwidth.

  • Saves Cost and Reduces the Development Time: Wireless Application Protocol allows the user to easily add new features to the web application. It provides tools and platforms that reduce the efforts required to develop web applications, such as WAP devices and gateways, and complete software development tool kits. The cost of adding a new service is relatively less and can be implemented efficiently.

It also provides additional advantages such as:

  • It allows the user to share the data among the devices in real-time. This makes it quite useful while testing applications.
  • It does not require any additional hardware equipment to implement this protocol. It can be run on any wireless device. The protocol is supported by almost all modern wireless devices such as mobile phones, laptops, and tablets.
  • The implementation of this protocol is simple and is similar to the internet model.
  • This provides a personalized experience to the user as the web application is adjusted to the device on which it is implemented.

Disadvantages of Using WAP

  • This requires a third party to implement this protocol.
  • Though it is well adjusted to the user device, it also limits the choice of the user interface.
  • The end-user is not familiar with this protocol. Only the developer knows about this protocol.
  • Implementing this protocol can reduce the speed of loading the web application and cause security issues.
  • It is expensive to implement. The web application is displayed on very small screens.

Application of Wireless Application Protocol

Nowadays, wireless devices are quite popular among users. They come in various sizes and models. This protocol is extensively used in various fields. Some of them are mentioned below:

Corporate Application: This is used by various corporations to develop their websites. It is used to develop an incorporation application that the staff can easily access using their devices. It provides the employees with the latest information about the projects and pricing. It provides them access to competitive information and news. This is very important to increase the efficiency of the corporation.

Mobile Banking: This is a very useful application of WAP. It has drastically increased the efficiency of the banking sector as it provides various services provided by the banks at our fingertips. Various components such as WAP, private information services, and security are required to implement mobile banking. The user can check their account balance and perform transactions using the application. The user can access all the banking services from all the mobile phones. Wireless Application Protocol allows the applications to tailor the banking services according to the system from which they are accessed. It is beneficial when the user requires to perform e-commerce. The user can also make secure transactions. 

Games: Online games are quite popular these days. Various people around the world use them. People extensively use them as mobile applications or computer software. The user can download and install the game on his personal computer or mobile. WAP allows the user to run the game efficiently on a personal device. The user can easily connect to various people across the globe to play online multiplayer games, and they play in the same environment using WAP.

Mobile Commerce: The user can perform transactions using their mobile phones. The wireless devices can perform electronic transactions, and the user can transfer funds from one device to another using various e-payment software. This software implements Wireless Application Protocol to ensure that they can be operated from all the devices.

Ringtone: This protocol provides a service to download ringtones. They are short music notes played when the call is made on the mobile phone. The user can change their ringtone. The user can either download these ringtones from the internet or can even compose a ringtone suiting his needs. 

Unified Messaging: Multiple types of messages floods the system. To deal with these several types of messages, this service is developed that provides a single software to manage all kinds of messages. It displays all the messages in a single unified messaging box. The user can manage the unified messaging prompt using the Wireless Application Protocol.

Positioning: The WAP protocol is also used in implementing the Global Positioning System (GPS). The GPS is a networking service that constitutes 24 satellites used to pinpoint the location of any device using this service. It allows the user to determine the real-time location of a device, vehicle, or person. Any receiver can request their location using GPS, and it sends the user their satellite position. The SMS contains information about the device's location, such as its latitude and longitude position of the device, which can be almost 60 characters long.

Qualitative Information: There is a variety of information accessed by the user on their devices. This includes qualitative information that can be represented in graphs and charts. The information can be share prices, flight plans, weather reports, etc. Using WAP to display the qualitative content ensures that it can be properly displayed on any personal device.

History of Wireless Application Protocol

The WAP Forum was founded by Nokia, Erickson, Unwired Planet, and Motorola in 1988. The forum aimed to provide a standardized solution for all the wireless processes. The forum objective was set to develop a Wireless Application Protocol that could be implemented on all wireless devices. WAP was developed in 1999. In different countries, the protocol was introduced by different organizations.


The launch of the Wireless Application Protocol created a huge hype in the market. This was the first protocol standard protocol for wireless applications. Marketing campaigns were organized to popularize the protocol. The usage of this protocol increased drastically with the introduction of wireless service providers such as T-Mobile, T-Zones, and Vodafone. They increased the number of users of wireless technologies. It enabled the organization to generate huge revenues as it provided a new business model different from traditional business models such as internet service providers. The use of the Wireless Application Protocol was reduced in 2013; this protocol is now outdated; most websites no more use WAP. Now the website's responsiveness is increased by using scripting languages such as JavaScript. The new websites support web technologies such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. They are no longer required to implement wireless application protocols separately, and they are developed so that they are compatible with various web browsers and devices.


WAP was very popular in Asia and especially in Japan. Many wireless applications were developed that were implemented using Wireless Application Protocol. Some popular services were chakumovie, Java, and Sha-Mail picture mail services. However, it lost its popularity by 2010. The modern handsets that supported HTML became more popular, and it was no longer required.


The WAP was not very successful in the US because of the following reason:

In the USA, to deploy the Wireless Application Protocol the user needs to pay extra charges to activate the protocol. This was a major setback; moreover, the telecommunication companies in the country demanded to limit the access to the information to only certain data providers. This issue was resolved in 2007 when the FCC released an order that stated that the manufacturers and third-party developers could access this data when they were working on a particular licensed network band.

Wireless Application Protocol 2.0

This was a later version of the protocol that was developed in 2002. This enhanced the user experience as it provided support for new wireless technologies such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. It also supported other network protocols such as Internet Protocol, Transfer Control Protocol, and HTTP. The user can implement end-to-end HTML and reduce the gap between the wireless world and the internet. It was configured by the operator that allowed the operator to add additional information such as billing information, telephone numbers, and various other information about the device. It provided many new features; some of the features are mentioned below:

It increased the Push functionality of the wireless application protocol,

A user agent profile is required to update any change in the device's capability.

It also allowed the user to connect with an external interface such as an external plug-in similar to a micro browser.

WAP Gateway

It is a necessary software responsible for decoding and encoding the request and response between the microbrowser and the internet. Whenever the user requests a piece of information using the micro-browser on the smartphone. The request is forwarded through this gateway as it provides security. Any WAP-enabled device needs to use this gateway; it allows the user to communicate to various wireless applications and websites.

What is WAP

In WAP-enabled devices, the response from the server is generated using Wireless Markup Language that sends the requested content in a particular format which is then compiled and further sent to the WAP gateway through which it reaches the device. The gateway works as an intermediate server which is to access the request. The request is sent to the WAP gateway, which then collects the information from the website and then encrypts the information that is at last displayed on the user-end device.

WAP Browser

This is a special web browsing software that can be installed on your wireless devices to access that are compatible with WAP. Various internet protocols are required to convert the web site's content into simple text. WAP was developed to standardize this for various wireless devices; the developers created WAP web pages that can be accessed using any wireless device. The optimized website using Wireless Application Protocol is more efficient and can easily be loaded. There is the possibility that the content will not be properly loaded on some devices because of the difference in their specifications. The latest versions of WAP browsers support modern languages such as XHTML and XHTML.