Computer Fundamentals Tutorial

Computer Introduction Types Of Computer Characteristics Of Computer Uses Of Computer

Computer Languages

Low Level Language Middle Level Language High Level Language

Computer Generation

Generation Of Computer Second Generation Of Computer Third Generation Of Computer Fourth Generation Of Computer Fifth Generation Of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input Devices Of Computer Output Devices Of Computer


Block Diagram Of A Computer Control Processing Unit (CPU) Software Computer Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM

Computer Network

Types Of Network

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


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Block Diagram of Computer

Computer Block Diagram System: Mainly computer system consists of three parts, that are central processing unit (CPU), Input Devices, and Output Devices. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is divided into two parts again: arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and the control unit (CU). The set of instruction is in the form of raw data.

A large amount of data is stored in the computer memory with the help of primary and secondary storage devices. The CPU is like the heart/brain of the computer. The user does not get the desired output, without the necessary option taken by the CPU.  The Central processing unit (CPU) is responsible for the processing of all the instructions which are given by the user to the computer system.

Block diagram of computer

                                       Fig: Block Diagram of the computer.

The data is entered through input devices such as the keyboard, mouse, etc. This set of instruction is processed by the CPU after getting the input by the user, and then the computer system produces the output. The computer can show the output with the help of output devices to the user, such as  monitor, printer, etc.

  • CPU (Central Processing Unit)
  • Storage Unit
  • ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit)
  • Control Unit

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The computer system is nothing without the Central processing Unit so, it is also known as the brain or heat of computer. The CPU is an electronic hardware device which can perform different types of operations such as arithmetic and logical operation.

central processing unit | CPU

The CPU contains two parts: the arithmetic logic unit and control unit. We have discussed briefly the arithmetic unit, logical unit, and control unit which are given below:

Control Unit

The control unit (CU) controls all the activities or operations which are performed inside the computer system. It receives instructions or information directly from the main memory of the computer.

When the control unit receives an instruction set or information, it converts the instruction set to control signals then; these signals are sent to the central processor for further processing. The control unit understands which operation to execute, accurately, and in which order.

Arithmetic and Logical Unit

The arithmetic and logical unit is the combinational digital electronic circuit that can perform arithmetic operations on integer binary numbers.It presents the arithmetic and logical operation. The outputs of ALU will change asynchronously in response to the input. The basic arithmetic and bitwise logic functions are supported by ALU.

Storage Unit

The information or set of guidelines are stored in the storage unit of the computer system. The storage unit provides the space to store the data or instruction of processed data. The information or data is saved or hold in computer memory or storage device. The data storage is the core function and fundamental of the computer components.  

Components of Computer System

The hardware and software exist on the computerThe information which is stored through the device is known as computer software. The hardware components of the computer system are related to electronic and mechanical parts, and the software component is related to data and computer programs. Many elements are connected to the main circuit board of the computer system called a "motherboard."

Components of computer system
  • Processor.
  • Main Memory.
  • Secondary Memory.
  • Input Devices.
  • Output Devices.

These are mainly five components of the computer system. The computer hardware, computer software, and liveware exist in the element of the computer system.


The processor is an electric circuitry within the computer system. The Central processing unit is the central processor or main processor of the computer system. The processor carries out the instructions of the computer program with the help of basic arithmetic and logic, input/output operations.

Main Memory  

The Random Access Memory is the main memory of the computer system, which is known as RAM.  The main memory can store the operating system software, application software, and other information.  The Ram is one of the fastest memory, and it allows the data to be readable and writeable.

Secondary memory

 We can store the data and programs on a long-term basis in the secondary memory. The hard disks and the optical disks are the common secondary devices. It is slow and cheap memory as compare to primary memory. This memory is not connected to the processor directly.

It has a large capacity to store the data. The hard disk has a capacity of 500 gigabytes. The data and programs on the hard disk are organized into files, and the file is the collection of data on the disk. The secondary storage is direct access by the CPU; that's why it is different from the primary storage.

The hard disk is about 100 times the capacity of the main memory. The main difference between primary and secondary storage is speed and capacity. There are several large blocks of data which are copied from the hard disk into the main memory.

Input Devices

The user provides the set of instruction or information to the computer system with the help of input devices such as the keyboard, mouse, scanner, etc. The data representation to the computer system is in the form of binary language after that the processor processes the converted data. The input unit implements the data which is instructed by the user to the system.

We can enter the data from the outside world into the primary storage as the input through input devices. The input devices are the medium of communication between the outside world and the computer system.

There are some important features of input devices which are given below:

  1. The input devices receive or accept the data or instruction from the user, who exist in the outside world.
  2. These devices convert the data or instruction into the machine-readable form for further processing.
  3. The input device performs like the connection between the outside world and our computer system.
  4. The keyboard and mouse are common examples of input devices.
  5. When the whole procedure is finished, we get the desired output from the output devices such as monitor, printer, etc.

Output Devices

The output devices produce or generate the desired result according to our input, such as a printer, monitor, etc. These devices convert the data into a human-readable form from binary code.

The computer system is linked or connected to the outside world with the help of output devices. The primary examples of output devices are a printer, projector, etc.

These devices have various features which are given below:

  1. These devices receive or accept the data in the binary form.
  2. The output devices convert the binary code into the human-readable form.
  3. These devices produce the converted result and show to the user.