Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick

History of Computers

You might think just like there were no computers available in ancient times, no people can know about computers, but at that time, they had to calculate and compute by counting other daily uses such as sticks, stones, bones, and many more. They were nothing known about computers and electronic gadgets. As technology improves day by day, people also use advanced technology, which leads to better, fast, and more efficient.

List of the popular computing devices were developed in recent times, such as Abacus, Napier’s bones, Paschalis’s, etc.


Abacus “was the main founder of initial stage of computers, which considered the first computer. It is invented 4000 years ago by a Chinese scientist.

History Of Computers

Abacus is a wooden rack with metal rods, and each rod contains beads that are mounted on them. Today it is also used in countries like China, Russia, and Japan. As the abacus operator, people move the beads, and arithmetic calculations perform whatever they want to count. An image simple of these tools is below.

Napier Bones

It was basically used for computing and calculating device. They use those numbers to mark and count anything whenever they want to calculate anything like addition, multiply, subtraction, and divide. A simple image of Napier Bones showing below.

History Of Computers


Pascaline was widely used in ancient times. The main founder was mathematician- philosopher “Blasé Pascal” in 1642 and 1644. Pascal helped to father, who was working as a tax accountant, by using Pascalines to calculate tax-related work. The main basic purpose of this could perform quick calculations such as addition, subtractions, etc.,

When we consider its structure, it was a wooden box with a series and wheels. When rotating wheels and completing one revolution, then another neighboring wheel also rotates, and so on, it continues for another wheel. They got a series of windows given on the top of the wheels for doing this. And last, they calculate the total wheels working.

A simple image of Pascalines showing as below.

History Of Computers

Stepped Reckoner or Leibniz wheel

It was invented by a German mathematician – philosopher "Gottfried Leibniz" in 1673. It was made up of fluted drums instead of gears and wheels.

Difference Engine

Charles Babbage discovered the Difference Engine in early 1820 for the first time. Difference Engine is the first machine that uses logarithmic tables to solve the table of numbers. We can say that it is a mechanical computer capable of performing simple calculations. “steam-driven” calculating machine is main motto of this type of computer

History Of Computers

Analytical Engine

It was developed in 1830 by Charles Babbage. In this type of machine they used punch cards. The main important advantage of this, it stores information as a permanent memory.

History Of Computers

Tabulating machine

For storing tabulating statistics data or records, they used tabulating machines. This type of computing machine also used punch cards. It was discovered by "Herman Hollerith", an American statistician scientist, in 1890. A mechanical tabulator was wok based on punched cards in this machine.

History Of Computers

Differential Analyzer

The differential analyzer computer was the first electronic computer. Vannevar Bush discovered it in the year 1930 in the United States. Vacuum tubes are used to generate electrical signal.

Mark 1

In the year 1937, the next major changes begin in the history of computers. It was developed by “Aiken”. The main motto of this machine was to develop; it could perform large calculations containing large numbers.

History Of Computers

Generations of Computer

Generation of a computer refers to improving and enhancing computer technology with time. With the increasing day-by-day technology, people will also correlate with these new technologies efficiently. Today, you are seeing all universes became in digital format.

Initially, computer technology features were growing only in the case of hardware, but you can see that computer is enhancing with both hardware and software changes, and combining these two forms a called digital computer.

Each new generation of computers brings new technology as time changes. First of all, in 1946, a chip circuit was developed to perform the counting. At that time, it replaced tools such as gears, wheels, and many more mechanical parts. It increases the computer speed, performance, memory, and so many features are added.

There are five types of generations of a computer that exist now, which are described below-

First Generation computer

The first generations of computers (1946 - 1956) were very slow in speed, expensive in nature, very big, etc. In this phase, the computer used a large no of vacuum tubes, The main thing is that it generates heat. Magnetic tapes were used for input and output. They consumed large electricity, so it was very expensive to use. The instructions were written in machine language.

List of the all popular examples of first-generation computers areas –

  • ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)
  • UNIVAC (Universal Atomic Computer)
  • IBM-701
  • IBM-650
  • EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer)

 Advantages of First-Generation Computer

  • Vacuum tubes are essential parts, which are used for electronic components.
  • The first-time electronic computer was developed.
  • Computations were performed in a millisecond.

 Disadvantages of First-Generation Computer

  • Not portable
  • Too much large.
  • Limited commercial use.
  • They generate large amount of heat.

Second Generation computer

The second generation of computers also generated heat, but very less than the first generation of computers. The period (1956-1963) is known as the second generation of computers.

This phase of computers mainly used transistors. Compared to vacuum tubes of first-generation computers, transistors are smaller, have faster speed, efficient operation, and are reliable. For primary memory this generation used magnetic core, and magnetic tapes and disks were used for secondary memory.

For writing code and instructions, so they used as assembly language program. It uses mnemonics like ADD for addition, SUB for subtraction, etc. It uses simple English keywords; that's why writing code in assembly language was easier than writing code in machine language.

Assembly languages like COBOL and FORTRAN were used for writing instructions.

Some of the most popular examples of computers areas 

  • IBM 1620
  • IBM 7094
  • CDC 1604
  • CDC 3600
  • PDP 8

Advantages of Second Generation of computer 

  • Could be used for commercial purposes
  • Smaller in size
  • Less heat generation
  • Computations were performed in a microsecond
  • Less hardware and maintenance problems.
  • Much more reliable compared to the first generation of computers.

Disadvantages of Second Generation of Computer 

  • More costly for commercial purposes.
  • Required more maintains
  • Cooling is also required.

Third Generation of Computer

In this generation of computer integrated circuit (IC) chips are used for making computer. These IC chips contain many more no of transistors. That means multiple transistors are placed in a single silicon chip. Using IC chips increased the speed and the efficiency of the computer. For the first time, the keyboards and mice were used to give input to the computers. It used time-sharing multiprogramming as an operating system. A high-level programming language such as FORTRON-II, COBOL PASCAL, and PL/1 was used.

List of following popular examples of third-generation computers are

  • IBM – 360 series.
  • PDP (Personal Data Processor)
  • TDC-316
  • Honeywell -6000 series

Fourth Generation Computer

The year (1971-to 1980) is known as the second generation of computers. First-time microprocessors were used in this phase of computers.

They generate much lesser heat and require less maintenance than the previous generation of computers.

If we talk about in case of hardware technology, they use the Large Scale Integration (LSI) and Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology. VLSI contains millions of transistors and other chip circuits.

This generation of computers supports Time-Sharing and distributed operating systems. Several new operating systems were developed, such as MS-DOS MS- WINDOWS.

The programming languages such as C, C++, etc., also developed in this generation.

Some of the most popular fourth generations of computers are

  • STAR 1000
  • PDP 11
  • CRAY-1

Fifth Generation Computer

The main purpose of fifth-generation computing is to develop computers so that they are capable of learning and self-organization.

From 1980 to date, fifth-generation computers have been used. This generation of computer fully depends upon Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

Some of the popular fifth generations of computers are

  • Desktop
  • Laptop
  • Notebook
  • Chromebook
  • UltraBook