Computer Fundamentals Tutorial

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF How do Computers Connect Over the Internet How to copy and paste text to a document or another program How to find out how much RAM is installed on a computer How to uninstall a program using Command Prompt How many tabs are there in Microsoft Word How Much Memory or RAM Should My Computer Have How to Reset a BIOS Password How to Create a CSV File How to Delete a File, Directory, Or Folder How to Find Out My Monitor or Screen Size How to find the type of Computer Network Card and Network How to Fix Distorted Video after Increasing Resolution in Windows How to Install MS-DOS How to reference a cell from another cell in Microsoft Excel How to Set up or Install a Joystick or Gamepad How to Determine if You Have a 32-Bit or 64-Bit CPU How long should a laptop battery last How to Remove an App on a Smartphone or Tablet How to Rename or Label a Disk Drive How to Connect and Disconnect a Computer External Hard Drive How to Create a Link That Opens a New Web Page Window or Tab How to Find Out My Monitor or Screen Size How to Clear Your Computer Cache in Windows 10 How to Fix Blue Screen Error in Windows


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? 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is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What is PROM What is End Key What is Dial-up What is Decentralized System What is Ctrl + Click What is Blogger What is an Indent What is Aero Peek What is Accumulator What is a Workbook What is a Ribbon What is a footer What is a file What is a digital camera What is a Decision Box What is a Dead Halt What is a Custom-built PC What is a Current Directory What is a Curly Bracket What is a Copy Con What is a Command button What is a Column What is a Chart What is 104 Keyboard What does the Ctrl + Shift + End do What does Ctrl + X do What Does Ctrl+Shift+G Do What does Ctrl + Esc do What does Ctrl + E do What does Ctrl + D do What does Ctrl + 8 do What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a client What is a Delimiter What is a Drive What is a Floppy Cable What is a Session What is a SuperComputer What is a Touchpad What is Abacus What is an Expansion Slot What is an Integrated Circuit What is Content Addressable Memory What is DOA What is Double Space What is Double-headed Arrow What is EAPROM What is End Task What is Forward What is Google Drive What is Language Processor What is Magnetic Tape Memory What is Memory Size What is OTP What is PS2 What is RAM What is Resolution What is Router What is the Windows desktop.ini file, and can I delete it What is X86 Where fingers should be placed on the Keyboard Why is My Laptop Mouse Touchpad not Working Do I need a mouse pad What are Computer Languages, types, and list What is a Device Name What is a Microcomputer What is an Internal and External command What is Dollar Sign ($) What is Digitizer What is F4 What is Infrared Networking and How Does It Work What is an Ogg file What is a WordPad What is Technology What is Hub What is IDE What is MICR What is Pop Up Menu What is a Page Fault What is a Parallel Port What is a Parent Directory What is a Parity Bit What is an Output Buffer What are the fundamental Concepts Of TOC What is Multimedia What is Optical 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Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Virus, worm and Trojan Horse Difference between Static Data Member and Static Member Function Difference Between Application Software and System Software Difference between Compiling vs Linking


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System Application Software Characteristics of Management Information System Input Devices of Computer Information Additive Manufacturing Process Chain Machine Language and Assembly Language Merits and Demerits of Computer Microprocessor 4th Generation Output Devices Definition Three Input Devices Operating System Printer and Types of Printer Properties of Computer Role of Management in Software Development RS Pin in LCD Advantages of Computer and Disadvantages of Computer Basic Computer Knowledge for Interview Basic Computer Question and Answers Compare Input and Output Units Computer Knowledge Questions Computer Memory Chart Computer Unit List Application of Geographic information System Application of internet in Business Basic Components of Computer FYA in Email Communication MS Dos External Commands Optical input Devices Software Products The Applications of Computers 10 Uses in Different Fields The Applications of Mobile Phones 10 Uses in Different Fields Types of Video Formats Video input Devices Application of Geographic Information System Application of Internet in Business Basic Components of Computer FYA in Email Communication Ms Dos External Commands Optical Input Devices Software Products The Applications of Computers 10 Uses in Different Fields The Applications of Mobile Phones 10 Uses in Different Fields Types of Video Formats Video Input Devices First Generation of Computers Vaccum Tubes Transistors in Second Generation of Computers Two Categories of Software All Cables Name Computer Byte Chart Memory Table in Computer Special Purpose Computers Types of Twisted Pair Cable Application of Computer in Commerce Types of Computer Speaker Static Memory in Computer Organization Character Printers Napier Bones Computer Advantages and Disadvantages of Mainframe Computers Types of Number System in Computer Advantages and Disadvantages of Minicomputers Cmos in Computers Compare Data and information Compare SSD and HDD Facts About Output Devices Features of Modern Computer Barcode Reader in Computer Basic Applications of Computer Binary to Decimal Fractions Computer Applications Cursor Movement Commands Language Translators in Computers Line Printers and Their Applications Scanner Input Device Specific Purpose Computers Two Types of Monitors Compare SSD and HDD Memory Measurement Unit Non Impact Printers and Their Types Zip Drive in Computer SDMA in Mobile Computing ROM Primary Memory Projector Input or Output Meaning of Versatility in Computer Hard Copy Output Devices Features of Microcomputer Computer Projector Computer Application in Various Areas of Business Cathode Ray Tube Monitor Binary Addition and Subtraction Rules Advantages of Fragmentation Digital Visual Interface EBCDIC Code Example Features of Input Devices Advantages and Disadvantages of Cookies Advantages of Strategic Information System Audio Compression in Multimedia Classification of Binary Codes Classification of DSS Components of Computer System Drawbacks of Computer DVI Video Port EGA Stands For in Computer Floppy Disk Functional Units of Computer Hardware and Software Charts Introduction to Machine Learning and its Types Laptop Touchpad Cursor Jumps Around While Not Touching It Scanner Input Device Simons Model of Decision Making Special Purpose Keys in Keyboard Transistor Based Computer Use of Cache Memory Versatility of Computer Disadvantages of Using Computer Main Uses of Computer in Banks Primary and Secondary Memory of Computer Serial Access Memory Types of Plotters in Computer

History of Computers

You might think just like there were no computers available in ancient times, no people can know about computers, but at that time, they had to calculate and compute by counting other daily uses such as sticks, stones, bones, and many more. They were nothing known about computers and electronic gadgets. As technology improves day by day, people also use advanced technology, which leads to better, fast, and more efficient.

List of the popular computing devices were developed in recent times, such as Abacus, Napier’s bones, Paschalis’s, etc.


Abacus “was the main founder of initial stage of computers, which considered the first computer. It is invented 4000 years ago by a Chinese scientist.

History Of Computers

Abacus is a wooden rack with metal rods, and each rod contains beads that are mounted on them. Today it is also used in countries like China, Russia, and Japan. As the abacus operator, people move the beads, and arithmetic calculations perform whatever they want to count. An image simple of these tools is below.

Napier Bones

It was basically used for computing and calculating device. They use those numbers to mark and count anything whenever they want to calculate anything like addition, multiply, subtraction, and divide. A simple image of Napier Bones showing below.

History Of Computers


Pascaline was widely used in ancient times. The main founder was mathematician- philosopher “Blasé Pascal” in 1642 and 1644. Pascal helped to father, who was working as a tax accountant, by using Pascalines to calculate tax-related work. The main basic purpose of this could perform quick calculations such as addition, subtractions, etc.,

When we consider its structure, it was a wooden box with a series and wheels. When rotating wheels and completing one revolution, then another neighboring wheel also rotates, and so on, it continues for another wheel. They got a series of windows given on the top of the wheels for doing this. And last, they calculate the total wheels working.

A simple image of Pascalines showing as below.

History Of Computers

Stepped Reckoner or Leibniz wheel

It was invented by a German mathematician – philosopher "Gottfried Leibniz" in 1673. It was made up of fluted drums instead of gears and wheels.

Difference Engine

Charles Babbage discovered the Difference Engine in early 1820 for the first time. Difference Engine is the first machine that uses logarithmic tables to solve the table of numbers. We can say that it is a mechanical computer capable of performing simple calculations. “steam-driven” calculating machine is main motto of this type of computer

History Of Computers

Analytical Engine

It was developed in 1830 by Charles Babbage. In this type of machine they used punch cards. The main important advantage of this, it stores information as a permanent memory.

History Of Computers

Tabulating machine

For storing tabulating statistics data or records, they used tabulating machines. This type of computing machine also used punch cards. It was discovered by "Herman Hollerith", an American statistician scientist, in 1890. A mechanical tabulator was wok based on punched cards in this machine.

History Of Computers

Differential Analyzer

The differential analyzer computer was the first electronic computer. Vannevar Bush discovered it in the year 1930 in the United States. Vacuum tubes are used to generate electrical signal.

Mark 1

In the year 1937, the next major changes begin in the history of computers. It was developed by “Aiken”. The main motto of this machine was to develop; it could perform large calculations containing large numbers.

History Of Computers

Generations of Computer

Generation of a computer refers to improving and enhancing computer technology with time. With the increasing day-by-day technology, people will also correlate with these new technologies efficiently. Today, you are seeing all universes became in digital format.

Initially, computer technology features were growing only in the case of hardware, but you can see that computer is enhancing with both hardware and software changes, and combining these two forms a called digital computer.

Each new generation of computers brings new technology as time changes. First of all, in 1946, a chip circuit was developed to perform the counting. At that time, it replaced tools such as gears, wheels, and many more mechanical parts. It increases the computer speed, performance, memory, and so many features are added.

There are five types of generations of a computer that exist now, which are described below-

First Generation computer

The first generations of computers (1946 - 1956) were very slow in speed, expensive in nature, very big, etc. In this phase, the computer used a large no of vacuum tubes, The main thing is that it generates heat. Magnetic tapes were used for input and output. They consumed large electricity, so it was very expensive to use. The instructions were written in machine language.

List of the all popular examples of first-generation computers areas –

  • ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)
  • UNIVAC (Universal Atomic Computer)
  • IBM-701
  • IBM-650
  • EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer)

 Advantages of First-Generation Computer

  • Vacuum tubes are essential parts, which are used for electronic components.
  • The first-time electronic computer was developed.
  • Computations were performed in a millisecond.

 Disadvantages of First-Generation Computer

  • Not portable
  • Too much large.
  • Limited commercial use.
  • They generate large amount of heat.

Second Generation computer

The second generation of computers also generated heat, but very less than the first generation of computers. The period (1956-1963) is known as the second generation of computers.

This phase of computers mainly used transistors. Compared to vacuum tubes of first-generation computers, transistors are smaller, have faster speed, efficient operation, and are reliable. For primary memory this generation used magnetic core, and magnetic tapes and disks were used for secondary memory.

For writing code and instructions, so they used as assembly language program. It uses mnemonics like ADD for addition, SUB for subtraction, etc. It uses simple English keywords; that's why writing code in assembly language was easier than writing code in machine language.

Assembly languages like COBOL and FORTRAN were used for writing instructions.

Some of the most popular examples of computers areas 

  • IBM 1620
  • IBM 7094
  • CDC 1604
  • CDC 3600
  • PDP 8

Advantages of Second Generation of computer 

  • Could be used for commercial purposes
  • Smaller in size
  • Less heat generation
  • Computations were performed in a microsecond
  • Less hardware and maintenance problems.
  • Much more reliable compared to the first generation of computers.

Disadvantages of Second Generation of Computer 

  • More costly for commercial purposes.
  • Required more maintains
  • Cooling is also required.

Third Generation of Computer

In this generation of computer integrated circuit (IC) chips are used for making computer. These IC chips contain many more no of transistors. That means multiple transistors are placed in a single silicon chip. Using IC chips increased the speed and the efficiency of the computer. For the first time, the keyboards and mice were used to give input to the computers. It used time-sharing multiprogramming as an operating system. A high-level programming language such as FORTRON-II, COBOL PASCAL, and PL/1 was used.

List of following popular examples of third-generation computers are

  • IBM – 360 series.
  • PDP (Personal Data Processor)
  • TDC-316
  • Honeywell -6000 series

Fourth Generation Computer

The year (1971-to 1980) is known as the second generation of computers. First-time microprocessors were used in this phase of computers.

They generate much lesser heat and require less maintenance than the previous generation of computers.

If we talk about in case of hardware technology, they use the Large Scale Integration (LSI) and Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology. VLSI contains millions of transistors and other chip circuits.

This generation of computers supports Time-Sharing and distributed operating systems. Several new operating systems were developed, such as MS-DOS MS- WINDOWS.

The programming languages such as C, C++, etc., also developed in this generation.

Some of the most popular fourth generations of computers are

  • STAR 1000
  • PDP 11
  • CRAY-1

Fifth Generation Computer

The main purpose of fifth-generation computing is to develop computers so that they are capable of learning and self-organization.

From 1980 to date, fifth-generation computers have been used. This generation of computer fully depends upon Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

Some of the popular fifth generations of computers are

  • Desktop
  • Laptop
  • Notebook
  • Chromebook
  • UltraBook