Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is Protocol?

A protocol is a set of rules for formatting and processing data in networking. These rules govern the users on the network stating the instructions to format and process the data shared on the network. These rules are essential to be implemented. Various devices are connected to the network, and they can be smartphones, laptops, or personal computers. Moreover, the user can also use various software to access the network to ensure that the communication between different devices and software goes smoothly.

Most of the protocols used during networking are similar to the language. In real life scenario, the person from different countries may have difficulty communicating in the native language of the other. Still, they can choose an entirely different language to communicate with instead of doing so.

The protocol can also be explained as an official language like many international organizations have certain languages that can be used to perform communication. Similarly, when we talk about networking, if one system in the network uses Internet Protocol to communicate on the internet, then to establish a connection with the other system, it is necessary for the system to also use Internet Protocol.

If any of the protocol does not use the Internet Protocol, it will not be possible to establish a connection between both computers. Several activities can be performed on the internet, requiring different rules. The network is divided into different layers; each layer has its protocol to perform its tasks. The OSI model defines the various layers of the network, and it is sometimes taken as a reference to discuss the protocols in networking.   

OSI Model in Networking

What is a protocol

OSI Model stands for Open System Interconnection Model, is the standard model that describes the structure and working of the network. In the OSI model, the network is divided into 7 layers, every layer has its task to perform, and they have different protocols to perform the functions effectively.

For example, the Internet Protocol is responsible for directing the data packets; it states the source form where the data packet originates and where the data packet is headed to.

It is essential to set up a network-to-network connection. Thus, the protocol works at the network layer. Therefore, it is considered a layer 3 protocol. Considering another protocol, the Transmission Control Protocol, as the name suggests, is responsible for managing data transmission. It ensures no issues during the transfer of data between the source and the destination. The TCP works at the transport layer of the network; therefore, it is considered the layer 4 protocol.

What is a data packet?

When sharing the data on the network, the data is not sent as a single unit but is divided into small segments; each packet is called a data packet.

Network Layer Protocol

We have already discussed Internet Protocol; in the network layer, the task performed by the IP is routing the data packets. Numerous other protocols are implemented at the network layer of the internet.

IPsec: It stands for Internet Protocol Security; one of the major networking issues is security. This protocol is responsible for handling the part.

The protocol performs the following function to ensure the security of the network:

  • Setting up encryption
  • Authenticates the Internet Protocol connection over a VPN.
  • It is not a protocol, but it constitutes various other protocols such as Authentication Header and Encapsulating Security Protocol.

ICMP: It stands for Internet Control Message Protocol. The protocol is responsible for notifying about any updates in the status of the network or any error in the network. This protocol is very important to ensure that the complete data is received at the destination. When data is transmitted, there is always the possibility of losing some data during transmission; this protocol sends a notification to the data source whenever the router fails to send one or multiple data packets.

IGMP: It stands for Internet Group Management Protocol. The protocol is similar to making a group in any social media application. The protocol is used to establish one too many connections that allow a single user to send the data to multiple devices simultaneously. This reduces the effort of the sender. It allows multiple devices to receive messages sent to a single IP address.

Some other protocols that are implemented on the internet

TCP: It stands for Transmission Control Protocol. The protocol is implemented at the transport layer of the network. The protocol's responsibility includes ensuring that all the data packets reach the destination from the source. It is required to establish a connection before implementation, and this connection serves as the path for the data packets. This protocol is often implemented with Internet Protocol (IP). Thus, it is also known as TCP/IP.

HTTP/HTTPS: Whenever the user accesses the internet, the user can find this protocol implemented at the very start of the website address. It is the basic foundation block of the world wide web. HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol and is implemented at the application layer of the network. Today many users use internet services; the data is shared between different devices.

The data is required in a suitable format so that the application can use the data. The webpages on the internet are created using various languages such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and many others. The data should be interpreted before displaying it to the user. The layer at the lowest level is managed by the system's OS instead of the applications. The only thing that HTTP lacks is that it is not secure, as anyone who gains access to the HTTP message can easily read it. This issue was resolved by HTTPS. This protocol ensures security by encrypting the message.

TLS/SSL: This protocol is implemented by the Hypertext Transmission Protocol Secure (HTTPS); it is used to encrypt the HTTP message. This was previously known as the Secure Sockets Layer.

UDP: This protocol is also implemented at the transport layer. The protocol provides services that can manage some data loss but require high bandwidth, such as during live streams or playing online video games. The difference between the TCP and UDP is that the complete data transmission is not ensured in UDP, but it allows faster transmission than the TCP.

Protocols Used by the Routers

When the data is transmitted between numerous devices, especially in large networks, there is always a possibility of multiple routes to transmit the data between the source and destination. Some protocols help in determining the best route for the data transmission. They are not concerned with the transfer of the data but only suggest the route for the transmission. Some of these protocols are:

BGP: It stands for the Border Gateway Protocol implemented at the application player layer. The protocol's purpose is to make the IP address visible to every system so that the data packets can easily be sent to the destination. It is a static routing protocol, which means it cannot automatically make changes in the routing table, so they have to be performed manually.

EIGRP: The protocol determines the distance between all the routes and creates a routing table with all the paths and the distance between the routers. Once the table is created, the protocol automatically chooses the best route to transfer the data. It can make changes in the table on its own, and once the changes are implemented, they are shared with all the routers in the network. The protocol is called the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol.

OSPF: The very first step is to determine the best path for the transmission of the data. The routers evaluate the best route considering the distance and various other factors. It will take bandwidth into account also. The protocol also maintains a database that records the data about the arrangement of the network devices and implements the Dijkstra algorithm to evaluate the network path whenever some changes occur.

RIP: This protocol can be implemented for both local and wide-area networks. The protocol is executed at the application layer. This protocol was previously used to determine the distance between the routers. The RIP was released in two versions:

The first version evaluated the path using the IP address of the destination and the number of hops required for completing the journey. The first version broadcasts the IP table to all the routers in the network, whereas the latter version sends the routing table to the multicast address.

Implementation of Protocol to Prevent Cyber Attack

Computers have always been subject to risk, but the risks increased exponentially with the ability of the system to connect to the network. In networking, the attackers can disrupt the working of the protocols. This can affect the systems that are implementing the protocol.

The attacker can use the protocol to attack the systems; multiple protocols can be used to perform a DDoS attack. They stand for distributed denial of service attacks. For example, the attacker can use the TCP protocol to flood the user with SYN requests; it initiates the handshake process until it finds an actual client. This can cause a delay in the connection and affect the efficiency of the network.