Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device

Components

Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware

Memory

Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports

How

How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF

Questions

Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling

Difference

Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples

Misc

Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

First Generation of Computer

Computers in our world have become an integral part of our livelihood. Each task of our daily routine is related to the concept of a computer. From the Sector of Education to the Sector of healthcare, computers play a key role in each Sector's development. Most businesses in this new era rely on computers and the data stored in them. When we hear the word Computer, the first picture that comes to mind is of these small laptops and PCs or smartphones, which are different from how they were created.

History

The journey of the computer started so many years ago with the discovery of the Abacus. Modern-day computers are small, cheap, and portable. But the computers of the first age were way different as they were large enough to be set on a floor or more. They were very expensive to make and tough to transport once established.

Some of the First Computers were:

  • Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC) - 1945
  • UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer I) - 1950s
  • IBM 701 - 1952
  • IBM 650 - 1953
  • Ferranti Mark 1 - 1951

The first generation of computers refer to the earliest computers developed in the late 1940s and 1950s. These computers were based on electronic vacuum tubes and used machine language, the lowest-level programming language, to perform their operations.

A Vacuum Tube is a device that uses a vacuum to amplify or switch electronic signals. It consists of a cathode, an anode, and a control grid, and it was widely used in the first generation of computers and various other electronic devices. Vacuum tubes were advantageous for their ability to amplify signals, but they were also large, prone to failure, and required a significant amount of power to operate. Despite these limitations, vacuum tubes played a significant role in modern electronics and computing. (Figure of Vaccum Tube Given Below)

First Generation of Computer

First-generation computers marked a significant shift in how people thought about computation and information processing. They were the first machines to be able to execute a wide range of tasks, including calculations, data storage, and data retrieval. They were also the first computers to store and execute programs, making them much more versatile than their predecessors.

These computers were used for various purposes, including military, scientific, and commercial applications. Despite their limitations, they played a significant role in the development of modern computing and laid the foundation for future generations of computers.

ENIAC

The first electronic computer was the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC). John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert invented it in 1945 at the University of Pennsylvania, United States of America.

The ENIAC was a large, bulky machine that took up an entire room. It was based on electronic vacuum tubes, which made it much faster than mechanical computers that relied on gears and levers. It was used primarily for military purposes, such as calculating ballistic trajectories, but it was also used for various scientific and commercial applications.

One of the main advantages of the ENIAC was its versatility. It was the first machine to be able to complete a wide range of tasks, including calculations, data storage, and data retrieval. It was also the first computer to store and execute programs, making it much more versatile than its predecessors.

Despite its many capabilities, the ENIAC had several limitations. It was very expensive to build and maintain, and it required specialized technicians to operate. It was also relatively slow by modern standards and required much maintenance to keep it running.

The ENIAC was a significant milestone in the history of computing and laid the foundation for the development of future generations of computers. Its development marked the beginning of the computer age, and it paved the way for developing more powerful and sophisticated computers that would come in the years and decades ahead.

First Generation of Computer

UNIVAC

The first commercial computer is the UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer I). It was developed in the 1950s by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert, the same team that developed the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC).

The UNIVAC I was based on the same technology as the ENIAC, but it was smaller and more practical for use in commercial settings. It was used for various business and scientific applications, such as payroll processing, inventory management, and weather forecasting.

UNIVAC I was known for its versatility. It performed a wide range of tasks, including calculations, data storage, and data retrieval. It was also able to store and execute programs, which made it much more versatile than its predecessors. It also had several limitations. It was still relatively expensive to build and maintain, and it required specialized technicians to operate. It was also relatively slow by modern standards and required much maintenance to keep it running.

Despite its limitations, the UNIVAC I played a significant role in the development of modern computing. It was the first computer to be used for commercial purposes, and it helped to demonstrate the practical applications of computing in business and other fields. It also paved the way for developing more powerful and sophisticated computers that would come in future generations.

First Generation of Computer

IBM 701

The IBM 701 was a computer developed by IBM in 1952. It was based on electronic vacuum tube technology and used machine language, the lowest-level programming language, to perform its operations.

The IBM 701 was designed for scientific and commercial applications and used for data processing, payroll processing, and inventory. Like its predecessors, it was also used for scientific research, including weather forecasting and nuclear research.

Speed was the crucial feature that IBM 701 had. It was one of the fastest computers and could perform many tasks at high speeds. It was also relatively reliable and required relatively little maintenance compared to some of the alternatives that were available at the time.

Despite its many capabilities, the IBM 701 had several limitations. It was still relatively expensive to build and maintain, and it required specialized technicians to operate. It was also relatively slow by modern standards and had limited memory capacity as compared to modern computers.

IBM 701 played a significant role in the development of modern computing. It was an important milestone in the history of computing and helped demonstrate its practical applications in business and other fields. It helped pave the way for developing more powerful and sophisticated computers that would come in future generations.

First Generation of Computer

IBM 601

The IBM 650 was a computer developed by IBM in 1953. It was based on electronic vacuum tube technology and used machine language, the lowest-level programming language, to perform its operations.

The IBM 650 was designed for scientific and commercial applications and used for data processing, payroll processing, and inventory management. It was also used for scientific research, including weather forecasting and nuclear research.

One of the main advantages of the IBM 650 was its versatility. It performed a wide range of tasks, including calculations, data storage, and data retrieval. It was also able to store and execute programs, which made it much more versatile than its predecessors.

Ferranti Mark 1

The Ferranti Mark 1 was a computer developed by Ferranti, a British electronics company, in 1951. It was based on electronic vacuum tube technology and used machine language, the lowest-level programming language, to perform its operations.

The Ferranti Mark 1 was designed for scientific and commercial applications and used for data processing, payroll processing, and inventory management. It was also used for scientific research, including weather forecasting and nuclear research.

Ferranti Mark 1 was also very reliable, like its predecessors. It was relatively reliable and required relatively little maintenance compared to some of the alternatives that were available at the time. It was also relatively fast and had a large memory capacity, making it well-suited for various applications.

First Generation of Computer

Working of First Generation Computers

To understand how a first-generation computer works, it's helpful to understand the basic components of these machines. A first-generation computer typically consisted of the following components:

  • Processing Central Unit (CPU): The CPU is the "brain" of the computer. It performs all the calculations and logic operations required to execute a program.
  • Memory: The memory of a first-generation computer was typically made up of a series of magnetic drums or core memory units. It was used to store data and programs while the CPU was processing them.
  • Input/Output Devices: First-generation computers use input/output devices, such as punched card readers, paper tape readers, and printers, to input and output data.
  • Control Unit: The control unit was responsible for managing data flow and instructions between the CPU, memory, and input/output devices.

A first-generation computer would first read a program from its memory to perform a task. The program would be written in machine language, consisting of a binary code series that the computer could understand. The computer would execute the program by performing the calculations and logic operations required to complete the task.

First-generation computers were relatively slow and had limited processing and memory capabilities compared to modern computers. However, they were still able to perform a wide range of tasks and played a significant role in the development of modern computing.

Structure

First-generation computers were characterized by using vacuum tubes as the main electronic component. These computers were large, expensive, and required electricity to operate. They were also inclined to overheat and breakdowns.

The structure of a first-generation computer typically included the following components:

Input devices: First-generation computers used punch cards, paper tape, and other mechanical input devices to input data and instructions into the computer.

Central Processing Unit (CPU): The CPU is the "brain" of the computer and is responsible for executing instructions and performing calculations. In first-generation computers, the CPU consisted of vacuum tubes used to perform logical operations and temporarily store data.

Memory: First-generation computers had limited memory capacity, typically measured in kilobytes or less. They used magnetic drums, cores, or vacuum tube circuits to store data and instructions.

Output devices: First-generation computers used printers and punch card readers to produce output.

Power supply: First-generation computers require a large and powerful power supply to operate the vacuum tubes and other electronic components.

Cooling system: Due to the heat generated by the vacuum tubes, first-generation computers require a cooling system to prevent overheating. This typically consisted of fans or water cooling systems.

Advantages of First Generation Computer

First-generation computers, which were developed in the 1950s, marked a significant shift in the history of computing. Before this, computers were large, expensive, and not widely available. First-generation computers changed everything by using vacuum tubes to perform calculations and store data electronically.

One of the main advantages of first-generation computers was their speed. They could perform complex calculations much faster than any previous computing device, making them ideal for scientific calculations, data processing, and simulations.

Another advantage of first-generation computers was their accuracy. These computers were programmed to follow precise instructions, and their electronic components were highly precise, making them very reliable.

First-generation computers were also versatile, as they could perform various tasks. They were used in various industries, including government, military, science, and business, and helped automate many tasks and process large amounts of data.

Limitations of First-Generation Computers

First-generation computers, developed in the 1950s, significantly advanced in computing. However, they also had several limitations that were eventually addressed in the later generations of computers.

One of the main limitations of first-generation computers was their size. These computers were very large and required much space to operate. This made them difficult to use in small or portable settings, such as in homes or on the go.

Another limitation of first-generation computers was their cost. These computers were expensive to build and maintain, which made them not widely available to the general public. This limited their use to large organizations, such as government agencies and businesses, who could afford the high cost.

First-generation computers also had limited memory and storage capacity. They used magnetic drums, cores, or vacuum tube circuits to store data and instructions, which had a limited capacity compared to modern computer storage devices. This limited the amount of data that could be processed and stored.

In addition, first-generation computers require specialized knowledge and skills to operate and maintain. This made them difficult for the average person to use and required trained technicians to keep them running smoothly.

While first-generation computers were a significant technological advancement, they were limited by size, cost, and memory and storage capacity. They also required specialized knowledge and skills to operate and maintain, which made them not widely available to the general public.

First Step towards The Future

First-generation computers, developed in the 1950s, marked the beginning of the contemporary era of computing. These computers significantly improved over previous computing devices, as they used vacuum tubes to perform calculations and store data electronically.

First-generation computers paved the way for the development of later generations of computers by demonstrating the potential and capabilities of electronic computing. They were used in various industries, including government, military, science, and business, and helped automate many tasks and process large amounts of data.

The success of first-generation computers also led to the development of future technologies and innovations that improved their limitations. For example, the development of transistors in the late 1950s replaced vacuum tubes as the main electronic component in computers, leading to the development of second-generation computers.

The development of microprocessors in the 1970s, which are small, inexpensive, and low-power chips that contain all the components of a computer, further revolutionized the field of computing and led to the development of personal computers that were small, affordable, and widely available.

Overall, the development of first-generation computers laid the foundation for the modern era of computing and led to the development of many innovations and technologies that have shaped how we use computers today.