Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick

Autoexec.bat and config.sys Information

Basically, the Config.sys and Autoexec.bat files are made for MS-DOS and Windows 3. x to load the device and operating system to work effectively. The most recent versions of MS-DOS and Windows 3.x cannot be loaded without these files.  But newer versions of windows are no longer needed.

How to edit the files

Config.sys and Autoexec.bat are both files that may be modified using the MS-DOS command file editor. If you want to edit this file, type edit c:\autoexec.bat, or to edit the Config.sys file, type edit c:\config.sys. The mouse won't function if the mouse drivers are not correctly loaded.

If you have window 95, window 98, or other window ME, and then it is recommended to use the sysedit command. To run sysedit, you have to click on Start, Run and type sysedit.

Note: Window XP is not currently used in the autoexec.bat or Config.sys file.

Remarking Information

We can temporarily or permanently prevent a line from loading each time the computer boots by identifying certain lines in the autoexec.bat or Config.sys files. Before each line you want to skip, put REM to indicate it as a remark.

Note: If you find some error with an autoexec.bat lie, remark the lie instead of deleting the line in case if it needs to be added again.

Getting additional memory

To load the program into the memory more efficiently in the computer, you have to use the code that is following, which will help to have a memory for MS-DOS programs and games as well.

The first three lines of your Config.sys file should be as shown below before you begin.

DEVICE = C: \ Windows \ HIMEM.SYS
DEVICE = C: \ Window \ EMM386.EXE NOEMS

Because DOS is loaded into higher memory before it is loaded into upper memory, in the memory manager, setting DOS = HIGH, UMB on the second line allows for memory savings. The first and third lines, which serve as the memory managers, cannot be put into high memory.

Loading of all devices in the Config.sys and autoexec.bat into high memory.

Autoexec.bat layout

Autoexec.bat and Config.sys information

There is following example of autoexec.bat:

@echo off
SET BLASTER=A220 I5 D1 H5 P330 E620 T6
SET PATH=C: \ Windows; C: \
LH C:\Windows \ COMMAND \ MSCDEX.EXE / D: 123

There is following some line that are common found in the autoexec.bat for further information about each of the given line:

@echo off

It is used to say MS-DOS to read the lines but not to echo their result back to the screen.


The set sound command instructs the computer to transmit all sound events to the directory holding the sound drivers.

SET BLASTER=A220 I5 D1 H5 P330 E620 T6

This line instructs the computer to configure the Sound Blaster settings, which is useful for computer games and other programmers that require sound. You have all sound card options if you have this line in your autoexec.bat. I5 stands for IRQ 5, and D1 for DMA 1. I5 is IRQ 5, D1 is DMA 1, and A220 is a port address of 220. The majority of sound cards have the following default settings.

SET PATH=C: \Windows; C:\

The computer is programmed to look in the root or the C: Windows directory if a command entered at the prompt is not found.


The CD-ROM is loaded into the high memory region using this line. The MSCDEX is detected in the C:\WindowsCOMMAND directory if you have Windows 95 or later. This file is located in the C:\DOS or C:\Windows directory in Windows 3. x or DOS. The /D: 123 specifies the name of the upper-memory driver; it can be anything, but it's generally /D: MSCD0001. Remember that this is the driver's moniker, not his or her actual name. If you modify this line, you must also modify the Config.sys file on your CD-ROM line. Your CD-ROM drive will not load if the two are not identical.


The mouse driver is loaded into high memory. Not all mouse, however, utilize the same drivers. The mouse might utilize mouse.exe, but it could also be "" or "mouse.sys," which is also loaded in the Config.sys file.


Smartdrive disc cache utility is loaded into memory.


Doskey must be loaded into memory before it can be used from the command line.


To clean the screen, use the MS-DOS command cls.


This line launches Windows automatically when the machine boots up for people using Windows 3. x. The computer would only load to the MS-DOS prompt if you didn't use this command.

Note: - A DOS text file should only be created or edited with a DOS editor like Modify, EDLIN, or TED. Use text (ASCII) format rather than any other specific file type that the word processor may support if you're using a word processor to save the file.
A DOS text file should only be created or edited with a DOS editor like Modify, EDLIN, or TED. Use text (ASCII) format rather than any other specific file type that the word processor may support if you're using a word processor to save the file.

Usage: -AUTOEXEC.BAT When DOS boots up, it reads BAT, including MS-DOS version 7.x, which is used in Windows 95 and Windows 98. Windows ME only parses environment variables to reduce reliance on the past, however this may be avoided.

Disk Control Program (DCP), an MS-DOS version developed by the old East-German VEB Robotron, also used the filename.

In Korean versions of MS-DOS/PC DOS 4.01 and higher, COMMAND.COM will look for a file named KAUTOEXE if the current country code is set to 82 (for Korea), no /P: filename is supplied, and no default AUTOEXEC.BAT is identified (except for PC DOS 7 and 2000). Rather, make sure the DBCS frontend drivers are loaded via BAT, even if the CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files aren't set up correctly.

Config.sys layout

Autoexec.bat and Config.sys information

An example of how the config.sys may appear is shown below: -


The following are some of the more commonly encountered lines in the Config.sys file, along with more information about each line.


The himem.sys line is crucial; it allows you to load drivers into the high memory region. Windows 3. x will not load if this line is missing.


A high memory block in an upper memory block has to be loaded using DOS.

Note:  After the himem.sys file, add this line.


The extended memory manager is loaded via the EMM386 line. Some older MS-DOS games, on the other hand, have issues with expanded memory and won't operate without the NOEMS declaration.


Windows may load up to 30 files at once using the files line. Going higher, on the other hand, may degrade the computer's performance; 30 has been shown to be the optimal setting. Also, make sure the line is one continuous line with no gaps between and after the =. (equal sign).


When an asynchronous hardware event occurred, the stack line was initially used in MS-DOS 3.2 to swap the stack. The line STACKS=0,0 was later added to the Config.sys in MS-DOS 3.3. This line was modified to STACKS=9,128 in specific instances.

The STACKS command has an 8-64, 32-512 range of values. If you input a greater value, you'll get a "FATAL: Internal stack failure, system suspended" error.


The Buffers line loads buffers into memory, which allows Windows to load memory.


The ANSI.sys line is a DOS driver that allows you to customize the DOS prompt with multiple colors, sizes, and special characters.


The CD-ROM drivers are used to control the CD-ROM drive. The /D:123 denote the driver's name, which is 123 in this case, but maybe anything, generally MSCD0001. It's important to remember that the /D:123 in Config.sys and autoexec.bat must match. If they're not the same, the CD-ROM won't operate in MS-DOS.


Allows you to select the computer's most recent hard drive. This line should only be used if you're running Windows 3.11 or older because newer versions of Windows disregard it.


This line specifies the amount of file control blocks that can be used for file sharing.  It should only be utilized when applications demand it, which is not the case currently. Between 1 and 255 can be used by FCBS.

Usage: During startup, MS-DOS and 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows employ a text file called Config.sys to configure the hardware of the machine.

A computer's memory, keyboard, mouse, printer, and other peripherals are configured using the Config.sys file. Any text editor can edit the Config.sys file, which is an ASCII file.