Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What is Date?

A Date is a specific point in time that is usually expressed in terms of a year, month, and day. Dates are used to mark events or occurrences that happen on a particular day or over a period of time. It can be used to track historical events, plan future events, or organise and sort information. Also, it can be represented in a variety of formats, including numerical formats such as YYYY-MM-DD or DD/MM/YYYY, or in a written format such as "February 22, 2023".

Date Notation

Date notation is the format used to represent a date in writing or printing. Different regions and cultures around the world use different date notations. Here are some common examples of date notation:

  • ISO 8601: This international standard for date notation uses the format YYYY-MM-DD. For example, February 22, 2023, would be written as 2023-02-22.
  • DD/MM/YYYY: This is a common format used in many countries, including the UK, Australia, and India. For example, February 22, 2023, would be written as 22/02/2023.
  • MM/DD/YYYY: This format is used in the United States and other countries. For example, February 22, 2023, would be written as 02/22/2023.
  • YYYY/MM/DD: This format is used in Japan and other Asian countries. For example, February 22, 2023, would be written as 2023/02/22.
  • Written format: Some date notations are written out in words. For example, February 22, 2023, could be written as "February 22nd, 2023" or "22nd of February, 2023".

Dating Methods

Dating methods are techniques used to determine the age of artifacts, fossils, or geological materials. There are various dating methods, each with its advantages and limitations. Here are some of the commonly used dating methods:

  1. Radiocarbon dating: Radiocarbon dating is a widely used dating method that measures the amount of carbon-14 in organic materials. Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope that decays over time at a known rate. By measuring the amount of carbon-14 left in a sample and comparing it to the initial amount of carbon-14, scientists can calculate the age of the sample. Radiocarbon dating is typically used to date materials up to 50,000 years old.
  2. Thermoluminescence dating: Thermoluminescence dating is a method that uses the amount of light released when a crystal is heated to determine the age of the crystal. This method is often used to date ceramics, as the heat from firing the ceramic resets the crystal's clock. Thermoluminescence dating can be used to date materials up to several hundred thousand years old.
  3. Dendrochronology: Dendrochronology, or tree-ring dating, is a method that uses the growth rings in trees to determine their age. Trees add one ring per year, so by counting the rings and comparing them to other trees in the area, scientists can determine the age of the tree and the date that specific events occurred. Dendrochronology is used to date materials up to a few thousand years old.
  4. Potassium-argon dating: Potassium-argon dating is a method that measures the amount of argon-40 in volcanic rock to determine the rock's age. Potassium-40 is a radioactive isotope that decays into argon-40 at a known rate. By measuring the amount of argon-40 in a sample and comparing it to the initial amount of potassium-40, scientists can calculate the age of the rock. Potassium-argon dating is typically used to date millions of years old materials.
  5. Uranium-lead dating: Uranium-lead dating is a method that uses the decay of uranium-238 into lead-206 to determine the age of rocks and minerals. Uranium-238 has a very long half-life (4.5 billion years), so this method can be used to date billions of years old materials.

These are just a few examples of dating methods used by scientists to determine the age of materials. Each method has its strengths and limitations, and scientists often use multiple methods to cross-check their results and ensure accuracy.

What is Calendar?

A calendar is a system of organising and measuring time, typically consisting of a set of days, weeks, months, and years. Calendars serve as a way to track the passage of time, schedule events and holidays, and coordinate social, cultural, and religious activities.

What is Date

Calendars can be divided into several categories based on their structure and purpose:

  • Solar calendars: Solar calendars are based on the movement of the Earth around the sun and typically have 365 days in a year, with a leap year of 366 days every four years. Examples of solar calendars include the Gregorian calendar, the Julian calendar, and the Ethiopian calendar.
  • Lunar calendars: Lunar calendars are based on the cycles of the moon and typically have 12 or 13 lunar months in a year, with each month consisting of 29 or 30 days. Examples of lunar calendars include the Islamic calendar and the Hebrew calendar.
  • Lunisolar calendars: Lunisolar calendars are based on both the moon's cycles and the sun's position and typically have 12 or 13 lunar months in a year, with extra days added periodically to keep the calendar in sync with the solar year. Examples of lunisolar calendars include the Chinese calendar and the Hindu calendar.
  • Religious calendars: Religious calendars are used to mark important religious holidays and events and are typically based on the religion's lunar or lunisolar calendar system. Examples include the Islamic calendar, the Hebrew calendar, and the Christian liturgical calendar.
  • Civil calendars: Civil calendars are used for administrative and legal purposes and are typically based on the solar calendar system. Examples include the Gregorian calendar, the Julian calendar, and the ISO calendar used for international business and trade.

Each calendar system has its own set of rules and conventions, including how days, weeks, months, and years are structured, how leap years are calculated, and how holidays are observed. Understanding different calendar systems can provide insight into the cultures and societies that use them and can help facilitate communication and cooperation across different communities.

What is the System Date?

System date is the current date and time set on a computer or device's operating system. The system typically uses this information to timestamp files and log events and can be accessed through the system settings or a command line interface. To ensure accuracy, the date and time can be set manually or synced with a network time server.

How to Set System Date

The method to set the system date varies depending on your operating system. Here are a few examples:


  • Click on the time and date display in the bottom right corner of the taskbar.
  • Click on the "Date and time settings" link.
  • Click on the "Change date and time" button.
  • Use the up and down arrows or type the new date and time.
  • Click "OK" to save the changes.


  • Click on the Apple menu in the top left corner of the screen.
  • Select "System Preferences."
  • Click on the "Date & Time" icon.
  • Click the lock icon in the bottom left corner of the window to make changes.
  • Use the up and down arrows or type the new date and time.
  • Click "Apply" to save the changes.

System Date and Time Format

Date and time formats vary by country and region, but here are some common ones:

What is Date
  • ISO 8601: YYYY-MM-DD T hh :mm :ss (e.g. 2023-01-30T14:20:10)
  • US: MM/DD/YYYY hh: mm: ss (e.g. 01/30/2023 14:20:10)
  • European: DD/MM/YYYY hh: mm: ss (e.g. 30/01/2023 14:20:10)
  • UK: DD/MM/YYYY hh:mm: ss (e.g. 30/01/2023 14:20:10)
  • 24-hour time: hh:mm: ss (e.g. 14:20:10)
  • 12-hour time: hh: mm: ss AM/PM (e.g. 02:20:10 PM)

Synchronization of Date

What is Date

Synchronization of dates refers to the process of ensuring that different devices, systems, or individuals are all using the same time and date. This is important for coordinating activities, scheduling meetings, and ensuring that transactions and communications are recorded accurately.

There are several methods used to synchronize dates, including:

  • Network Time Protocol (NTP): NTP synchronizes the clocks of computers and other devices on a network. NTP uses a hierarchical system of servers to provide accurate time references and to correct for clock drift.
  • Global Positioning System (GPS): GPS is a satellite-based navigation system that provides accurate time references for synchronization purposes. GPS receivers can provide precise time signals that can be used to synchronize clocks and devices.
  • Radio time signals: Radio time signals broadcast by national standards organisations such as NIST in the United States or the National Physical Laboratory in the UK can provide accurate time references that can be received by devices equipped with a radio receiver.
  • Internet time services: Internet time services such as or provide accurate time references that can be accessed by devices connected to the internet.
  • Manual synchronization: In some cases, manual synchronization may be necessary to ensure that all devices and individuals use the same time and date. This can involve coordinating time settings manually or setting an agreed-upon time for an event.

By using accurate time references and synchronization methods, organisations and individuals can ensure that their activities are coordinated and recorded correctly.