Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

Version Control System

There are many problems that are faced by a multinational organization. These problems are the backup of data, storing several versions of files and collaboration of employees. All these problems are essential for the company. So to resolve this problem, version control system was introduced. In this article, we are going to learn about the version control system and its benefits.

Before knowing about version control systems, let us take an example of a situation. Suppose there is a multinational organization present worldwide. It also has some employees. So there are some challenges that are faced by the organization. Such challenges are as follows:

What Is Version Control?

Version control is a system that records the changes made to a file. The Version control system deal with the software that looks after the source code. This software records all the changes made to the version of the project. Another responsibility of the version control system is that it connects all the employees on one page. It also checks that weather all the employee works on the latest version of the file or not. And the most important thing is that it checks whether all the employees work on the same project or not. With the help of version control, the developer can cross-check the older version of the project and correct their mistake.

Challenges of Version Control System

1. Collaboration

The organization has employees, and these employees are situated in different places. So they may need the communication for a particular reason. 

2. Storing Versions

The project has many versions, and the organization needs to save all the versions of the project. This is a challenge for the organization.

3. Restoring Previous Versions

Sometimes we need the previous version of the project to detect the roots of the bugs in the current version of the project. 

4. Figure out What Happened

Sometimes it is complicated to find out what changes were made in the previous version of the project.

5. Backup

If the hard disk gets corrupted, then all the backup of the project is lost, and all the efforts go in vain. 

The solution for all the above challenges is the version control system. With the help of the version control system, all the challenges of a multinational organization are solved. With the use of version control, we can take the backup of projects remotely, and many more things are possible with the help of a Version control system. 

Benefits of the Version Control System

The Version control system is becoming beneficial to all software developers. It is very unsafe to develop the software without the old version of it. It provides a better interface for software developers. There are some benefits of the Version control system. The benefits are as follows.

1. Managing and Protecting the Source Code-

The version control system can look after the software by tracking all the modifications done by the software developer. It provides the support of protection to all the source code from unauthorized access. 

2. Comparing Earlier Versions of the Code-

All the version of the project is saved. With the help of a version control system, the developer can compare the current and old versions to rectify their bugs.

Below is some best version control system that is available on the market. 

a) GitHub.

b) GitLab.

c) Perforce.

d) Beanstalk.

e) AWS CodeCommit.

f) Apache Subversion.

g) Team Foundation Server.

h) Mercurial.

i) Bitbucket.

j) Concurrent version control.

Types of Version Control System

Depending on the needs of the client, the version control system is divided into three types. These are as follows.

1. Localized Version Control System 

2, Centralized version control systems

3. Distributed version control systems

1. Localized Version Control System-

The Localized version Control System method is famous for its simplicity. But in this method, there is a high chance of error. In this method, also the developer may forget in which directory they are working. To overcome this issue, the developer set up a local version Control System which has a simple database. This database is used to keep all the information of the changed file. The version Control System also kept a duplicate copy of all the versions of the file for backup. It has only one disadvantage it has a single-point failure. 

2. Centralized version control systems -

Sometimes the developer needs to collaborate with other developers to work on a particular project. The local version Control System can not perform this work perfectly. To overcome this problem, the developer develops centralized version control systems. In this system, there is a single server for all the systems where all the files are saved in that single server. There are some benefits of centralized version control systems. These benefits are as follows.

  • Due to a single server, all the employees know what other employees are doing on the project.
  • The administrator can control the work of all the developers.
  • It is very easy to deal with Centralized version control systems in comparison to local version Control systems.

It also has the same disadvantages as the local version Control System: single-point failure. 

 3. Distributed version control systems-

In Centralized version control systems, the server store all the versions of files and collaboration of teams. But due to its singleton failure. So to overcome this problem, the developers develop Distributed version control systems. 

In a Distributed version control system, the server creates a duplicate copy of all the versions of the files. The local server contains all the duplicate copies of the version file and metadata that are present in the central server. Distributed version control systems it has a feature of automatic management of merging and branching. It speeds up all the processes in the system. With the help of Distributed version control systems, we can perform our work offline, and all the backup files are not stored in a single location. If one server gets fails, then another server can take the place of that failed server so that the developers do not face any trouble. At every checkpoint, the data backup takes place. In Distributed version control systems, all the systems do not depend on the central server for the old data version. 

Difference between Centralized Version Control System and Distributed Version Control System in Tabular Form

The Centralized Version Control system works on the client-server principle. In Centralized Version Control Systems, many clients can connect with the main server. But the Distributed Version Control System works on peer-to-peer architecture. Both centralized and distributed version control systems have many drawbacks and benefits. Below is the difference between both centralized and distributed version control systems.

Centralized Version Control SystemDistributed Version Control System
1. In the Centralized Version Control System, all the old versions and data are saved on one server and delivered that data to many clients.1. In Distributed Version Control System, every user has a local copy instead of one main server.
2. Centralized Version Control System follows client-server principle.2. Distributed Version Control System follow peer to peer principle.
3. it is a straightforward system.3. it is flexible in nature
4. In a Centralized Version Control System, the server provides all the updated versions of files to the client.4. In Distributed Version Control System, every user can check their updated file by the local server.
5. Centralized Version Control System is a slow process in comparison with Distributed Version Control System.5. Distributed Version Control System is a speedy process compared to a centralized Version Control System.
6. SVN (Subversion) and CVS are the most popular tools of the Centralized Version Control System.  6. Git and Mercurial are the most important tools of Distributed Version Control systems. 
7. The Centralized Version Control System is easy for beginners to understand.7. Distributed Version Control System is complicated to understand for beginners.
8. In a Centralized Version Control System, if the main server stops, then the whole work stops.8. In Distributed Version Control System, if one server fails, then it can not affect the whole work.


While it is possible to develop software without using any version control, doing so subjects the project to a huge risk that no professional team would be advised to accept.