Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit

What is Motherboard?

The motherboard, also known as the mainboard or the baseboard, which is responsible for performing all the basic tasks on the computer. In mac, the motherboard is known as the logic board. It is the biggest integrated circuit located in the system. It is a printed circuit that forms the foundation of the computer. It supplies power to all the system components and facilitates communication between the various components of the system. All the components responsible for processing are connected to the system's motherboard. It is connected to the CPU, RAM, and ROM of the system. It has additional USB and PCI ports and is responsible for the communication between the CPU, RAM, as well as other system hardware components. 

What is Motherboard

The motherboard is located in the system's Central Processing Unit, as the CPU comes in different sizes. The motherboard also comes in various shapes and sizes. There are various types of motherboards, allowing them to work with specific types of processors though they work with almost every hard disk. 

The integrated circuit includes various chipsets that manage the system's keyboard, mouse, and storage. It acts as a control centre for the various I/O devices. Constant advancements are made in the motherboard chipsets; with every new chipset installed in the motherboard, the processing speed and efficiency of the motherboard increase. New components are also developed to work effectively with the new chipsets.

The first-time board of circuits of used in the IBM system. They called the circuit board the planar instead of the motherboard.

History of Motherboard

1981: Printed circuit board was developed for the IBM computer; they called the board planar instead of the word motherboard.

1984: IBM launched the full AT motherboard form factor in the factor. It required a very large place to set up and increase the system's size.

1985: A year later, the Baby AT motherboard was launched by IBM. Changes were made to reduce the size of the full AT motherboard.

1987: LPX motherboard was developed by Western Digital.

1995: Intel launched the first motherboard with ATX specifications in the market.

1997: In March, IBM, along with DEC, developed the NLX motherboard. By November, FIC and Intel built the motherboard that supported AGP. In December, Intel launched a micro-sized motherboard with ATX specifications. 

1998: The first WTX motherboard form factor was introduced by Intel.

1999: Flex ATX motherboard form factor was developed by Intel. 

2000: Kontron introduced the first motherboard with ETX specifications.

2001: UTX motherboard was developed by TQ-Components. In November, VIA technologies reduced the size of the ITX form factor and launched a Mini-ITX form factor.

2003: It was the first time a PCI slot was provided in the motherboard. In March, the size of the ITX form factor was further reduced, and the Nano-ITX was launched.

2004: To provide a better display, NVIDIA launched the motherboard that allowed the users to connect two video cards to the motherboard simultaneously. This year, Intel launched the motherboard that supported BTX specifications. The company also released the micro-BTX and Pico-BTX form factors in the market. In March, the first Mobile-ITX factor motherboard was released.

2005: PICMG launched the COM Express form factor. The motherboard with XTX form factor and specification motherboard was launched.

2006: The first motherboard specifically designed to play high graphic games was launched. A micro-ATX motherboard enabled the user to connect two video cards. This year, Supermicro launched the SWTX motherboard form factor in the market.

2007: Pico-ITX motherboard was launched, and AMD also developed the DTX form factor and the Mini-DTX form factor that increased the system's efficiency.

2010: The HPTX form factor was developed by the EVGA.

Components of a Motherboard

What is Motherboard

Despite the small size of the motherboard, it is equipped with numerous smaller components that allow it to perform its various functions. Its components include:

Heat Sink: Various components in the motherboard constantly generates heat. The heat sink is equipped with fans. The function of the heat sink and the fan is to maintain a constant temperature of these components. It is made up of metal alloys.

There are two types of heat sinks:

  1. Active Heat Sink: They are equipped with fans.
  2. Passive Heat Sink: These devices do not have any fans.

They act as the cooling devices for the processors and other components attached to the motherboard. It is used to refrigerate components such as video card processors and GPUs.

Parallel Port: These ports were available in the older model of motherboards. They were specifically provided to connect old printers. It requires different wires to send and receive bits of data, while the serial port only requires a single wire to both send and receive the data bits.

Back Pane Connectors: The user can establish a connection between the connector and the plug into the port. It is necessary to attach the connector of the I/O devices in the port to connect them to the system.

Capacitor: This device allows the user to store electrical charge in it. It is used to perform the function of a condenser. It prevents the Direct current from entering the motherboard component and allows only alternate current to pass through it. Whenever DC is supplied to it, it is converted into positive and negative charges on the opposite walls of the capacitor and converts Direct current into AC.

Northbridge: It is an IC chip located inside the motherboard and used to establish the connection between the CPU and the memory. It is directly connected to these components of the motherboard. The main function of the northbridge is to establish the connection between peripheral devices and the CPU.

Southbridge: This is not directly connected to the I/O devices, but it acts as a controller for the various hardware devices connected to the system. This whole IC chip is manufactured separately and is a different motherboard component.

Jumper: The function of the jumper is to break an electrical connection. It is a metal connector; the electric current can pass to certain parts of the motherboard while blocking it to some parts. It constitutes of small pin enclosed inside a jumper block. It works similarly to the inline switch and is responsible for controlling the electric circuit board.

Integrated Circuit: This chip is responsible for providing functionality to the motherboard. It acts as a microprocessor, amplifier, and even the oscillator. It can also store a minimal amount of data. It constitutes numerous logic gates and pathways that determine the flow of an operation. 

Geoffrey Dummer was a British engineer who introduced the concepts of integrated circuits, but Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce developed the first IC. This component is used in almost all modern devices and is responsible for significantly reducing the system's size.

PCI slot: These slots were introduced in the motherboard to provide the option of adding extra internal components to the motherboard if needed. Intel released this design. It allows the user to connect additional peripheral devices to the motherboard, such as a modem, graphic cards, etc. They can enhance the performance of the system.

Memory Slot: This slot is reserved for connecting the system's Random Access Memory. The motherboard can have two to three of these slots. We can insert the RAM into the CPU using these slots and increase processing speed by increasing them. There are several types of RAMs available in the market, depending upon the speed and size of the RAM. Each slot allows only a specific type of RAM to get inserted into it. 

USB Headers: Several small pins provide additional USB ports to connect devices with USB-type connectors to the system. These devices include a mouse, keyboard, etc.

Serial port Connector: This port only allows sending or receiving one-bit data at a time. It has only one wire used for both transmitting and receiving the data on the system. In Some systems (mostly compatible with IBM), these ports can serve communication purposes. Example: The user can connect to a modem using COM port1; not all devices can be connected to these ports.

Super I/O: This component was developed in the 1980s. It was first introduced as an expansion card and is responsible for controlling the working of less complex I/O devices such as Floppy Disk, Game ports, Infrared, etc. They are integrated chips embedded in the motherboards of a system to provide a common interface for multiple low bandwidth devices.

SATA: The parallel AT attachment equipped in the systems that were compatible with IBM, this connection's first version that was SATA 1.0, was introduced in 2001 to replace the above connections. SATA stands for Serial AT attachment. It significantly increased the performance and speed of accessing and working with drives. When used with a disk array, it delivered almost 1.5Gbps of performance to each drive of the array. A small cable is attached to the Serial AT attachment, which makes it easier to efficiently perform cable routing. It ensures better airflow than the cables that were previously used. Thus, the equipment does not get heated much.

System Panel Connectors: This panel forms the front panel of the system's central processing unit. It is responsible for performing all the functions that can be performed directly from the CPU console. It constitutes a reset button, a power button, and several LEDs. It also has key locks and case speakers. There are several types of cables connected to the motherboard; that includes PLED, Reset SW, PLED, etc. The connection is established using two different color wires that enable the user to determine which cable will be connected to which port. 

Motherboard Form Factors

The motherboard form factor specifies the size of the motherboard. This determines the physical structure of the motherboard. The physical layout of the motherboard also determines the power supply required by the system. It is necessary to know the motherboard form factor to ensure compatibility between the motherboard and the peripheral devices. When constructing a system, it is necessary to know the layout of different components of the motherboard and the positioning of the mounting holes to align the equipment accordingly. The most common form factor is ATX. Over time, multiple form factors are developed. Let us discuss each form factor individually. 

AT & Baby AT: It was before 1997 when the size of the motherboard was quite large. IBM manufactured these large motherboards. IBM used advanced technology to reduce the dimension of the motherboard. It was able to develop the AT form factor in 1984, and because of its smaller size, this factor became quite popular. Now, this form factor is also outdated. The advanced form factors such as ATX and Baby AT are more commonly used. BAT or Baby AT was introduced to replace the AT factor by IBM only. The size of the AT form factor was further reduced, and the compatibility with peripheral devices was enhanced. It was used with Pentium computers till the 1990s and was replaced with more advanced form factors.

ATX or Advanced Technology Extended: This form factor was developed by Intel and launched in 1995. This form factor was introduced to standardize the motherboard's design and build a basic layout the motherboard. Different versions of the ATX form factor were released in the market. Though they were not as popular as the BAT form factor, minor upgrades were performed in the ATX form factor, such as it came with a 20-pin connector to connect with the power supply. It ensured that the overlap was reduced between the motherboard and drive. They also soldered the ports for I/O devices directly on the motherboard. 

BTX: It refers to Balanced Technology Extended. This was introduced as a replacement for the ATX. It was launched in 2004 by Intel. The new form factor included many features, such as it provides support to the components with high masses. The layout was improvised to facilitate cooling. This form factor was designed in such a way that the functionality of the motherboard could be extended further. It was equipped with PCI Express and USB 2.0. It had an inline airflow, allowing the user to change the position of memory and expansion slots. This also reduced the need for a fan in the system, thus reducing its noise. Despite introducing all these features, the company terminated its production by 2006. It was discontinued because the design of BTX was not based on the ATX form factor. When designing the form factor of the motherboard, the ATX is considered the standard form factor. The new advanced form factors are based on the legacy AT systems. Thus, BTX was incompatible with AT. It was not a piece of standard equipment for the industry.

DTX: It refers to discontinuous transmission. It was introduced to enhance two-way wireless communication. The efficiency was improved by allowing the system to mute the wireless telephone for a moment. The discontinuous transmission was developed by AMD in 2007. It was a variation on the ATX. This form factor was quite small and was specifically designed for personal computers. This motherboard form factor was compatible with ATX specifications, and AMD declared it as the standard form factor. Various smaller DTX was also launched in the market, such as Mini-DTX. The width of the printing circuit was reduced by removing layers from it. This also reduced the manufacturing cost and was selected as a standard while constructing small PCs. This design was called the Shuttle SFF design.

LPX: It stands for Low Profile Extension. This form factor was launched by Western Digital and became quite popular. It was used in most systems that were manufactured in the 1980s. It provided multiple ports to establish video, parallel or serial connections with the system. It also enabled the user to connect an expansion card parallel to the motherboard. The manufacturer provided an extra slot for a riser card; therefore, it is known as a Low Profile Extension. The system's design was sleeker compared to systems equipped with the Baby AT form factor.

microATX: This provided all the features introduced in the ATX form factor. They reduce the size of the form factor. The new design saved space and reduced the manufacturing cost as it required less material. They reduced the length and width of the motherboard. Intel developed it in 1997. They can be used in any system that supports the ATX form factor. They are also used in any system with a smaller size. The reduced size of the motherboard provides more space for the input and output devices in the back. These form factors were equipped with integrated I/O connectors that reduced the emission caused by the motherboard.

NLX: It refers to New Low Profile Extended. This form factor is based on the board. It was developed by Intel and was released on the market in 1997. They were developed to standardize the design of the LPX form factor. They can be easily removed from the system. It provided support for various connections such as USB, DIMM, and AGP. It allows the user to use larger modules and reduces the cable's length. Unlike the Low profile Extended, this form factor was launched as a standard, which provided the same feature but did not have a standard layout. It also provided multiple options to connect various components. It can be used for the repair and upgrade of the components.

Number of Ports on the Motherboard

There is no exact number that can be placed on the motherboard. There is no clear answer to how many ports are to be provided on the motherboard? The developer can determine the number of ports required by referring to the documentation of the form factor. It can be determined by reading the specifications of the motherboard. In case the documentation is not available, the pdf file of the documentation can be downloaded from the manufacturer's website. They are free to download.

Connecting the Motherboard to the System

We can place the motherboard in the computer case using standouts. Once the motherboard is attached to the computer case, the computer components of the CPU are connected to expansion cards or the motherboard of the system.

Standout: They are similar to screws; they are made up of metals or plastic and can be attached to the computer case. It provides the necessary support to the motherboard. They prevent the motherboard from touching the metallic surface of the case. The motherboard consists of integrated circuits, and electrical signals are continuously transmitted in the motherboard. If the motherboard and the metal case come in contact, it can damage the motherboard's components. Thus, it is always preferred to attach the motherboard using these standouts.

What is Motherboard