Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick

Types of Network

“The computer network is a set of computers connected to share resources.”An internet itself can be considered the computer network.

In computer networks, the computing devices exchange the data with each other by using the connections between nodes. The data links are established over cable media such as wires or optic cables or wireless media such as Wi-Fi.

The computer network is a digital telecommunication network which allows nodes to share the resources. It is the group of computer systems and other computing hardware devices. Those devices are linked together through communication channels to facilitate communication and resource sharing among a wide range of users.

Computer Network

                                             Figure: The computer network.

There is an example of the earliest computer network that was the Network for communicating computers which are functioned as a part of the U.S. military’s Semi-Automatic Ground Environment Radar System.

Networks are used to facilitate communication via email, video conferencing, instant messages, etc. It enables files sharing across the Network. These are also used to make information easier to access and maintain among the network users.

Types of Network

Computer Network 1

The Network is also used to enable the multiple users to share a single hardware device like the printer or scanner. It allows for sharing of software or operating programs on the remote system.

There are multiple devices or medium in a computer network, which helps in the communication between two different devices that are called as network devices.

Ex. Router, switch, bridge, hub, Gateway, Modem, Repeater. The Network is the interconnection of multiple devices and termed as hosts connected by using multiple paths to send and receive the data or media. The computer network is mainly of four types, which are given below:

  1. LAN (Local Area Network)
  2. MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
  3. PAN (Personal Area Network)
  4. WAN (Wide Area Network)

There are several types of protocols which are used in networking. The protocol is a set of rules or algorithms which defines the way how two entities can communicate across the Network, and different protocol is defined at every layer of the OSI Model.

1. LAN (Local Area Network)

The Local Area Network is a computer network which interconnects the computer within the limited area such as a residence, school laboratory, university campus or office building. LAN (Local Area Network) spans a relatively small area. In a wireless LAN, the users have unrestricted movement within the coverage area.

 The wireless networks become popular in the residences and small businesses just because of their easy installation. The network topology describes the layout of interconnections between devices and network segments. The wide varieties of LAN topologies are used at the data link layer and physical layer.

Computer Network 2

2. MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)

The Metropolitan Area Network is a computer network which is similar to the Local Area network but spans an entire city or campus.

Computer Network 3

In Metropolitan Area Network, we interconnect the user with computer resources in a whole geographic area or region. This Network is larger or broader that the Local Area Network.

3. PAN (Personal Area Network)

The Personal Area Network is used for interconnecting the devices which are centered on a person’s workspace. This Network provides data transmission among devices such as computers, smartphones, tablets, and personal digital assistants.  

Computer Network 4

                                 Figure:  The Personal Area Network.

4. WAN (Wide Area Network)

The Wide Area Network is the telecommunication network which extends over the large geographical area for the primary purpose of computer networking. These networks are often established with leased telecommunication circuits. The WAN connects different smaller networks, including the Local Area Network.

Computer Network 5

The computers connected to the Wide Area Network are often connected through public networks, such as telephone systems. This Network can connect through the leased lines or satellites.