Computer Fundamentals Tutorial

Computer Introduction Types Of Computer Characteristics Of Computer Uses Of Computer

Computer Languages

Low Level Language Middle Level Language High Level Language

Computer Generation

Generation Of Computer Second Generation Of Computer Third Generation Of Computer Fourth Generation Of Computer Fifth Generation Of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input Devices Of Computer Output Devices Of Computer


Block Diagram Of A Computer Control Processing Unit (CPU) Software Computer Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM

Computer Network

Types Of Network

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


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Fifth Generation of Computer

The period of the fifth generation is 1980-onwards. The VLSI technology develops into ULSI (ultra large scale integration) technology in the fifth generation. These are used in the production of microprocessor chips which have ten million electronic components.

The Fifth-Generation Computers are based on parallel processing hardware and artificial intelligence software. The artificial intelligence is the trending branch of computer science which interpret the meaning and methods of making computers that behave like human beings. This generation is in the developmental stage.

Fifth Generation of computer

Fig: Architecture of computer.

All the high-level languages are used in the fifth generation of computer. The main aim of the fifth-generation is to make the devices which are capable of self-learning and self-organization. This generation of computer is completely based on artificial intelligence and parallel processing hardware, and artificial intelligence includes the various terms which are given below:

  1. Robotics.
  2. Neural Networks.
  3. Game playing.
  4. Develop the expert system to decide a real-life situation.
  5. Natural language processing.


The robotics is the branch of engineering and science which includes mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering, computer science, and many others. It deals with the design, construction, operation, and use of robots as well as the computer system for the control of robots.

The Robots can be used for various kind of situations and purposes. The robots are the type of machine which can perform actions similar to human being according to individual instruction. NASA uses robots in many various ways.

The robotic rods on spacecraft used to move a massive object in space. The humans are given commands to the robots, and then they follow those commands. The Robots who can explore the surface of mars have rovers for this purpose.

There are various kinds of airplane robots which can fly without the presence of pilots. In these days, the NASA is researching the particular type of robots that will work with people and help them.

Neural Networks

The neural networks are the set of algorithms which can help us in the clustering and classification. These neural networks are designed to recognize the patterns. These networks interpret the sensory data through a type of machine perception, labeling, or clustering of raw data.

The patterns are in numerical forms which are recognized by the neural networks. They help us to group the unlabeled data according to similarities among those example inputs, and these networks can classify the data.

"Waren Mc Culloch" and "Walter Pitts" develop a computational model for neural networks based on mathematics and algorithms known as threshold logic. This neural network model was based on the two approaches. The first approach focus on the biological processes in the brain, and another approach was focused on the application of neural networks related to artificial intelligence. The neural network is a network or circuit of neurons.

This network is either a biological neural network, made up of real biological neurons or an artificial neural network for solving complicated artificial intelligence problems. The biological neural network is the group which are chemically connected or functionally associated with neurons. The single neuron connected to many other neurons, and the total number of neurons and connections in the neural network is very extensive.

Game playing

The game playing is the design of artificial intelligence programs which can play more than one game successfully. The computers are programmed to play various games, likes chess, etc. These programs are designed with the help of complicated algorithms, which cannot be transferred to another context. If the general game playing system is well designed then, it would be able to help in other areas such as to provide the intelligence to search and rescue missions. There are various types of different game playing systems, which can use their languages to define the game rules.

The game playing is a crucial domain of artificial intelligence. Every player wants to win the game and try his best so, everyone tries to make the possible moves at each turn. The searching techniques like breadth-first search are not sufficient for this branching factor, which is very high. We need another search procedure that can improve:

  • Generate procedure so that only right moves can generate as compare to complicated movements.
  • We also need to improve our test procedure so that the best move can be explored first then, the other steps come.

Minimax search procedure is a very common technique of game playing in artificial intelligence. It is the depth-first search with limited search procedures. These types of searches are used for games like chess and tic-tac-toe.

Natural Language processing

The natural language processing is the subfield of artificial intelligence. It is used for the interaction between the computer and human languages. The natural language processing is mainly used to program computers to process and analyze a large amount of natural language data.

The challenges in natural language processing are involved in speech recognition, NLP understanding, and natural language generations. The natural language processing generally started from the 1950s.

When we want an intelligent system like the robot to perform according to our instruction then, we need processing of natural language. The natural language processing always refers to artificial intelligence method of communicating with the intelligent system by using a natural language such as English.

Features of the fifth generation

  1. This generation of computer is using the ULSI (ultra large scale integration) technology.
  2. The development of natural language processing is growing in the fifth generation.
  3. The growth of artificial intelligence increased in the computer of this generation.
  4. These computers have advancement in parallel processing.
  5. The computer of the fifth-generation has more user-friendly interfaces with multimedia features.
  6. These computers are available at a cheaper rate.

Various types of computers exist in this generation, which are given below:

  1. Desktop.
  2. Laptop.
  3. Notebook.
  4. Ultra book.
  5. Chrome book.


The desktop computers are the personal computers which are designed to use at a regular basis. We need a desk or table due to its size and power requirements. This type of computer has physical hardware that makes a computer run and connects to input devices such as to monitor, keyboard and mouse, etc.

desktop computers

                               Figure: Architecture diagram of Desktop computer.

These computers commonly used for organizations as well as personal use such as gaming or education. The Desktop computer also includes the processor and the motherboard that is the main circuit board to the computer system. Almost the Desktop computer contains a built-in modem and multi Giga-byte magnetic storage drive.


The laptop is the small, portable, personal computer with the "clamshell" form factor. These types of the computer having the thin LCD or LED computer screen.

We can fold these laptops for transportation and also suitable for mobile use. These computers are no need of desk or table like Desktop computers. We can fit these computers in any person's lap, that's why it is known as the laptop.

These types of computers are smaller than a briefcase so, we can easily use laptops in temporary spaces such as airport, libraries, colleges, etc. The cost of laptop computers more than the desktop with the same functionalities.

 laptop computers

These laptops are more difficult to design and manufacture. We can convert any laptop computer into the desktop computer by connecting some peripherals such as a printer or large monitor. These computers have an attached keyboard and touchpad. The laptop computer has several ways of connecting to the network. The laptop computers have lightweight as compare to the desktop computer.


The notebook computers are less on-screen thickness. Sometimes the notebook computers are known as laptops. The costs of these computers are also more than desktop computers.

The notebook computer is extremely lightweight computer than others. The display screen is the main difference between the notebook computer and another computer. The screen of this computer produces very sharp images.

Notebook computer
Fig: The architecture of the notebook computer.

The notebook computers are considered as the family of laptop. These computers are mainly used for web browsing. The notebook computers become popular from recent time (since 2007).

Advantage of the fifth generation

  1. The computers of this generation are more reliable and work faster than previous computers.
  2. These computers are available in various size and unique features.

Disadvantage of the fifth-generation

  1. The computer of the fifth generation makes the human brain dull and doomed.
  2. We have to use sophisticated and complex tools in this generation.