Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

Fifth Generation of Computer

The period of the fifth generation is 1980-onwards. The VLSI technology develops into ULSI (ultra large scale integration) technology in the fifth generation. These are used in the production of microprocessor chips which have ten million electronic components.

The Fifth-Generation Computers are based on parallel processing hardware and artificial intelligence software. The artificial intelligence is the trending branch of computer science which interpret the meaning and methods of making computers that behave like human beings. This generation is in the developmental stage.

Fifth Generation of computer

Fig: Architecture of computer.

All the high-level languages are used in the fifth generation of computer. The main aim of the fifth-generation is to make the devices which are capable of self-learning and self-organization. This generation of computer is completely based on artificial intelligence and parallel processing hardware, and artificial intelligence includes the various terms which are given below:

  1. Robotics.
  2. Neural Networks.
  3. Game playing.
  4. Develop the expert system to decide a real-life situation.
  5. Natural language processing.


The robotics is the branch of engineering and science which includes mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering, computer science, and many others. It deals with the design, construction, operation, and use of robots as well as the computer system for the control of robots.

The Robots can be used for various kind of situations and purposes. The robots are the type of machine which can perform actions similar to human being according to individual instruction. NASA uses robots in many various ways.

The robotic rods on spacecraft used to move a massive object in space. The humans are given commands to the robots, and then they follow those commands. The Robots who can explore the surface of mars have rovers for this purpose.

There are various kinds of airplane robots which can fly without the presence of pilots. In these days, the NASA is researching the particular type of robots that will work with people and help them.

Neural Networks

The neural networks are the set of algorithms which can help us in the clustering and classification. These neural networks are designed to recognize the patterns. These networks interpret the sensory data through a type of machine perception, labeling, or clustering of raw data.

The patterns are in numerical forms which are recognized by the neural networks. They help us to group the unlabeled data according to similarities among those example inputs, and these networks can classify the data.

"Waren Mc Culloch" and "Walter Pitts" develop a computational model for neural networks based on mathematics and algorithms known as threshold logic. This neural network model was based on the two approaches. The first approach focus on the biological processes in the brain, and another approach was focused on the application of neural networks related to artificial intelligence. The neural network is a network or circuit of neurons.

This network is either a biological neural network, made up of real biological neurons or an artificial neural network for solving complicated artificial intelligence problems. The biological neural network is the group which are chemically connected or functionally associated with neurons. The single neuron connected to many other neurons, and the total number of neurons and connections in the neural network is very extensive.

Game playing

The game playing is the design of artificial intelligence programs which can play more than one game successfully. The computers are programmed to play various games, likes chess, etc. These programs are designed with the help of complicated algorithms, which cannot be transferred to another context. If the general game playing system is well designed then, it would be able to help in other areas such as to provide the intelligence to search and rescue missions. There are various types of different game playing systems, which can use their languages to define the game rules.

The game playing is a crucial domain of artificial intelligence. Every player wants to win the game and try his best so, everyone tries to make the possible moves at each turn. The searching techniques like breadth-first search are not sufficient for this branching factor, which is very high. We need another search procedure that can improve:

  • Generate procedure so that only right moves can generate as compare to complicated movements.
  • We also need to improve our test procedure so that the best move can be explored first then, the other steps come.

Minimax search procedure is a very common technique of game playing in artificial intelligence. It is the depth-first search with limited search procedures. These types of searches are used for games like chess and tic-tac-toe.

Natural Language processing

The natural language processing is the subfield of artificial intelligence. It is used for the interaction between the computer and human languages. The natural language processing is mainly used to program computers to process and analyze a large amount of natural language data.

The challenges in natural language processing are involved in speech recognition, NLP understanding, and natural language generations. The natural language processing generally started from the 1950s.

When we want an intelligent system like the robot to perform according to our instruction then, we need processing of natural language. The natural language processing always refers to artificial intelligence method of communicating with the intelligent system by using a natural language such as English.

Features of the fifth generation

  1. This generation of computer is using the ULSI (ultra large scale integration) technology.
  2. The development of natural language processing is growing in the fifth generation.
  3. The growth of artificial intelligence increased in the computer of this generation.
  4. These computers have advancement in parallel processing.
  5. The computer of the fifth-generation has more user-friendly interfaces with multimedia features.
  6. These computers are available at a cheaper rate.

Various types of computers exist in this generation, which are given below:

  1. Desktop.
  2. Laptop.
  3. Notebook.
  4. Ultra book.
  5. Chrome book.


The desktop computers are the personal computers which are designed to use at a regular basis. We need a desk or table due to its size and power requirements. This type of computer has physical hardware that makes a computer run and connects to input devices such as to monitor, keyboard and mouse, etc.

desktop computers

                               Figure: Architecture diagram of Desktop computer.

These computers commonly used for organizations as well as personal use such as gaming or education. The Desktop computer also includes the processor and the motherboard that is the main circuit board to the computer system. Almost the Desktop computer contains a built-in modem and multi Giga-byte magnetic storage drive.


The laptop is the small, portable, personal computer with the "clamshell" form factor. These types of the computer having the thin LCD or LED computer screen.

We can fold these laptops for transportation and also suitable for mobile use. These computers are no need of desk or table like Desktop computers. We can fit these computers in any person's lap, that's why it is known as the laptop.

These types of computers are smaller than a briefcase so, we can easily use laptops in temporary spaces such as airport, libraries, colleges, etc. The cost of laptop computers more than the desktop with the same functionalities.

 laptop computers

These laptops are more difficult to design and manufacture. We can convert any laptop computer into the desktop computer by connecting some peripherals such as a printer or large monitor. These computers have an attached keyboard and touchpad. The laptop computer has several ways of connecting to the network. The laptop computers have lightweight as compare to the desktop computer.


The notebook computers are less on-screen thickness. Sometimes the notebook computers are known as laptops. The costs of these computers are also more than desktop computers.

The notebook computer is extremely lightweight computer than others. The display screen is the main difference between the notebook computer and another computer. The screen of this computer produces very sharp images.

Notebook computer
Fig: The architecture of the notebook computer.

The notebook computers are considered as the family of laptop. These computers are mainly used for web browsing. The notebook computers become popular from recent time (since 2007).

Advantage of the fifth generation

  1. The computers of this generation are more reliable and work faster than previous computers.
  2. These computers are available in various size and unique features.

Disadvantage of the fifth-generation

  1. The computer of the fifth generation makes the human brain dull and doomed.
  2. We have to use sophisticated and complex tools in this generation.