Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? 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Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What is Optical Disk?

The optical disk is an electronic data storage medium that reads and writes data by using optical storage techniques and technology. There are mostly three types of optical disk available like Compact disk (CDs), Digital versatile disks (DVDs), which is also called Digital video disk, and the last one is Blue-ray Disks. Blu-ray disks are disks that supply giant capacities and data shifting rates. James T. Russell was the person who invented the first optical disk.

What is Optical Disk

Use of Optical Disk

The uses of these optical disks are as follows:

  • The optical disk is used to provide the software to the world.
  • It is used to shift data from one device to other.
  • It is also used to obtain a backup from a device.
  • It is used to store large data like images, telegenic, and some others also.
  • It can also use as a foldable and secondary storage tool.
  • There are some optical disks that provide to write data to a disk, therefore, you can make your own songs, photos, and videos, or you can also create a backup copy of your important data files.

How the Optical Disk work

The Optical disk depends on a blue and red laser to read and record the data. In modern times, most optical disks are in flat size or circular size of 12 centimeters in diameter. In the optical disk, the data is kept in the form of tiny data pits and alight.

The type of substance that is chosen for the recording material id relies on the utilization of the optical disk. The prerecorded disk, like audio or video, which is already created, can use cheaper material like Aluminum foil. When you write on prewritten disks, then it requires a costly layer of evidence to take in other types of digital data storage.

When you write on a disc, then the data is noted in a radial design beginning near the centre. The optical disc uses a laser beam to study the data available in the optical disk as it is rotating. It differentiates the pits and the lands based on the light reflected off the recording material. The optical disk utilizes different reflectivity to represent 0 and 1 bits.

Storage Capacity of Optical disk

There have different types of capacities in different types of optical disks. These are as follows:

  1. A CD (Compact disk) can hold up to 700 MB (megabytes) of data.
  2. A single-layer DVD (Digital Versatile disc) can hold up to 4.7 Gigabytes, and the double-layer DVD can hold 8.5 Giga bytes of data in it.
  3. And the last one we have read is a Blu-ray disc. It can hold up to 25 to 33.4 Gigabytes of data, and the quad-layer of Blu-ray discs can hold up to 128 Gigabytes of data.

All the formats of Optical disks are present in the same size, which is 4.7 inches (120mm) in diameter and 0.05 inches (1.2mm) thick. The size of the consonant of Blu-ray disk makes it possible to support all disk-like: CD, DVD. The compatibility works in only one direction. But the CD drives cannot run the DVD and Blu-rays, and the DVD drive cannot run Blue-rays.

History of Optical Discs

As we already discussed that James T. Russell, who developed the first optical disc, kept the data as micron-wide spots of light and dark. The device, which was developed by Russell, uses a powerful backlight to study the spot through an explicit sheet of substance on which the spots are encoded.

But the, Russell is credited with the development of the first optical disk because its creation bears a small resemblance to later CDs and DVDs. Russell used transparent foil to read the data. He used foil as a medium. The modern optical disk uses laser light to read the light that is being reflected back from the recording medium. Russell's device does not need the spinning, so it could be any size. It is not required to be a disk.

The modern CD and DVD, which is developed by the Physicist Peter Kramer in 1969. When he was working on the Philips search then, he developed it. He developed that type of disk, which encodes data on a reflective metallic foil that can be studied by a little, small-charged red laser. The assembly of the laser reads the dots and converts them into the audio or visual output. This disk became the basics of all digital optical storage media, but basically, it was used only analogue telegenic on the initial laser disk.

In the 1970s, the Philips team met up with Sony in a linked consortium concentrated on optical storage. They both met and developed an audio CD in the 1979s. And this marked the inception of digital optical storage for commercial use. Thus, this has been the constant success of optical disk formats, firstly in CD format and DVD format.

Then, after five years of this, the Sony team joined forces with Demon to produce the first CD-ROM, which stores all types of digital data, not audio-only. So firstly, the CD-ROM can hold 680 MB of data, and further, it increases by 700 MB. Then Further, the Sony team again team up with Philips and Toshiba, and Panasonic and they all created the DVD, which can hold up to 4.7 GB of data.

After ten years, there launched the next generation of optical storage, which is Blue Ray, uses a blue laser that increases the rate of data transfer and also increases the capacity of optical storage. So it can hold up to 25GB of data. It was developed by a consortium that was led by Sony.

In this project, Toshiba did not participate because it developed and tried to market its own format of the HD DVD. After a short time, The Blue Ray optical storage merge as the industry standard.

Manufacturer of optical disk

Modern Optical disk is made up of a basic sandwich of materials structure. The base of the optical disk is made up of hard plastic, and then the reflective layer, which is of aluminum foil, for the mass-produced disk. It is used to encode the data. And then, after that, there is a polycarbonate layer that secures the foil and helps the laser beam to move by the reflective foil layer.

In the optical disk, it includes different types of materials in the sandwich, which depend on the type of disk-like the disk is rewritable or only can be written on it once. CD-ROM is one example of the write-once disk. In this, the organic dye layer is pointed between the polycarbonate and the without written reflective foil. Because it replaces the aluminum foil with an alloy, which is a phase change material, In the rewrite disk, you can erase the data and can be rewritten it many times.

What can an optical disk hold most?

The one disk, which has been read is Blue-Ray that uses a blue laser beam. It is the newest type of optical media. It can stock up to 50 Gigabytes of data. In the market, you can see the 25-50 GB of storage capacity of the Blue Ray disk.

Types of Optical Drives

Optical drives are the disk-established drives that introduce in the 1980s. It allows for increased storage capacity and faster reading and writing times. There can be multiple types of optical drives, which are the following:


The full form of CD-ROM is Compact disk read-only memory. It was the earliest disk on the footing of drives for the newest PCs. Most of the popular CD-ROM devices have filling system disks with data encoded in ISO 9660. To reduce the noise and increase the stability of the CD-ROM drives in the computer run at a slow speed, and if the drive finds some error, then it will speed up the large data files. But the latest CD-ROM can achieve a read speed of 60 revolutions in 1 second.


The full form of DVD is a versatile digital disk read-only memory. It is direct evolutes from CD-ROM drives. When it contains some physical dimension, then its performance is greater than CD-ROM and also increases its capacity. It is a non-profit organization that created some other functionality for DVDs, and it also oversees DVD development.

3. Blue-Ray

In the market, The Blu-ray disk is one of the modest disks as of 2011. Thought out the 2000s, Sony created Blue-Ray technology which was one of the initiative proponents developed by Sony.

A Blu-ray disk is a high-capacity disk medium created for recording, rewriting, or use to play back high-definition video. It is designed as can hold large data. And it can also support the high resolution and the most advanced audio and video as compared to DVD.

It is named Blu-ray because it is related to a blue-violet laser that use to read Blu-ray disks.

When you compare it to a red laser beam DVD, it allows higher information at a higher density. Let's assume that if the red laser beam DVD can hold 15 GB of data per layer, then the Blu-ray disk can hold up to 25 GB of data per layer. And the dual-layer of it can hold up to 50 GB.

If the DVD provides a definition of 720×480 pixels of resolution, then the Blu-ray disk provides 1920×1080 pixels of resolution.

So you can see that the Blu-ray disk is very advanced as compared to other CDs or DVDs.

Advantages of Optical Disk

  1. The optical disk is made up of only plastic and aluminum foil, which makes it cheaper.
  2. When the things come to volatile and non-volatile memories, then the optical disk is more durable. When the power of it does not lose any data, so it can be run for a long term.
  3. The use of optical disks is very simple. So, its backup process is very easy. When we want to burn the data, then the data must be placed in the drive, which we want to burn. And the user can do easily this with the help of clicking on the "Burn Disk".
  4. The optical disk is very portable. However, the size of the disk is large, but it can be transported from one place to another, and it can be fit on any computer.
  5. The optical disk provides a high level of stability.
  6. An optical disk is completely unaffected by a magnetic field.
  7. An optical disk is much tougher than tapes and floppy disks.
  8. The optical disk also allows computers to use it as a music system.
  9. It can store the data for a long time.
  10. It cannot be damaged easily.
  11. The Optical disk has a large quantity of data as uncommon on both sides of the DVD.
  12. The time essential for located read and write head over the genuine track.

Disadvantages of Optical Disk

Now we know the advantages of Optical disk, but it also has some limitations that are given below:

  1. When you are using this disk for the backup purpose, then you have to keep it Safe from thieves. Once it is stolen then, it is more harmful. So because of its bully size, it can be easily stolen or lost.
  2. As compared to other drives, the optical drive is very costly. The optical disc is very expensive per Giga bytes/Tera bytes. Also, when we compare its capacity of it to the others, then it also has less capacity, Except for the Blue-Ray. The storage work of the optical disc is 4.7 GB.
  3. It is not more user-friendly because of its low cost. For services, there are require a remarkable amount of network and online backups.
  4. It is not easy to duplicate the optical disk like a USB flash drive. When you need to burn, then you have to need separate software and hardware.
  5. It can be easily scratched or can be broken easily.
  6. In the optical disk, it is not easy to copy any data from one to another as compared to the floppy disk.
  7. The optical disk is a more complicated disk than the others.
  8. It provides slow data accessed speed as compared to another magnetic disk.
  9. Label Optical disk for easy identification.

Reason of not popular Optical disk today

Now, we can see that we can download anything from the internet when it is required. There is no need to keep any data for future reference. You can get it through the internet. So that is one reason not to use optical disks nowadays.

The other reason is also that now in the market, and there are available USB flash drives, it can store more data as compared to optical disk, so now it is also not used because of USB flash drives.

It can also say that the cost of USB drives is very low, and the cost of the optical disk is high as you read USB flash drives store more data than the optical disk, so the USB flash drives are used today, not the optical disk.

There is also the reason for size because, in the market, there are many devices provided that are small size and have more capacity, so it is ignored.

There is one also reason that nowadays we don't need any physical device to store data because there are also available clouds that store data in software, so we don't need the optical disk physicals device. This is the reason, in the upcoming days, it might not be used to store the data.