Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

Fourth Generation of Computer

The period of the fourth generation was from 1971- 1980. The (VLSI) huge scale integrated circuits are used in the computers of this generation. These circuits have 5000 transistors and other circuit elements. The computers of the fourth-generation become more powerful, compact, reliable, and affordable.

There are various advanced features such as time-sharing, real-time networks, distributed operating system were used in the fourth generation. All high-level language like C, C++, Java, PHP are used in this generation.

These computers are also used in the LSI (large scale integration). The fourth generation is the extension of the third generation. The computer of the first generation filled the entire room space, but these computers can fit in the palm.

Fourth Generation of Computer

                                                  Fig: Architecture of computer.

The microprocessor chips are used in this generation of computers. The object-oriented programming was used in the fourth generation of computer. Various types of language exist in object-oriented programming such as Java, Visual Basic, etc.

These object-oriented programs are designed to solve specific problems and require little specialized user training. This includes query language and application generators. The Intel was the first company which can develop the microprocessors. IBM developed the first personal computer related to the fourth generation. These computers required a minimal amount of electricity to run. The fourth generation of the computer had the first supercomputer that was able to perform many calculations accurately. These supercomputers are also used in networking. The storage capacity increased up to several gigabytes or even terabytes.

Features of the fourth generation

  • The vast scale integrated circuits are used in the fourth generation of computer.
  • The computers become easily available in this generation.
  • No AC required when we use the computer of the fourth generation.
  • We have great development in the field of computer network during the fourth generation.
  • These computers are very small in size.
  • The computers of the fourth generation were portable and reliable.
  • These computers are very cheap.
  • The computers of the fourth generation were used in pipeline processing.
  • The concept of the internet was introduced in this generation of computer.
  • We can use personal computers in the fourth generation of computers.

Some computers of this generation are given below:

  1. DEC10.
  2. STAR 1000.
  3. PDP11.
  4. CRAY-1(Supercomputer).
  5. CRAY-X –MP (supercomputer).

STAR 1000 computer

The CDC Star 100 is the type of STAR1000 computer, which was vector supercomputer. These computers were designed, manufactured, and marketed by the control data corporation. That was one of the first machines to use the vector processor to improve the performance on scientific applications.

These computers were the first supercomputers which can use the integrated circuits. The name STAR has constructed the words Strings of binary digits that made up of arrays. The speed of these computers was 100 million floating-point per second.

The series of STAR computer is similar to CDC's earlier computer. The pipeline connected to the functional units from memory was massive in these computers. There were very few programs can be effectively vectorized into a single series of instructions.

Fourth Generation of Computer

                                         Fig: Block Diagram of STAR 1000 computer.

These computers support virtual memory capabilities. The main addition in the innovation of STAR computer was an instruction to the vector processing. The simple CPU in these computers can support the number of peripheral processors.

PDP 11 computer

The PDP 11 was a series of 16-bit minicomputers, which are sold by the digital equipment corporation. Some experts considered the PDP 11 as the most popular minicomputer ever. This type of computer included several innovative features in its instruction set and many additional general-purpose registers.

These computers use memory-mapped Input/Output. Mostly operands can apply anyone from eight addressing modes. The addressing modes provide register, immediate, absolute, and index addressing.

There are various types of real-time applications created by PDP-11 so that this computer replace the PDP-8 computers. The programming ease of PDP-11 computers made it very popular for general-purpose computing.

The PDP-11 computer was the smallest system that can run on UNIX. The newer microprocessor such as Motorola 68000 and Intel 80386 also included 32 –bit logical addressing. These computer systems also run the UNIX derivatives. These computers were designed to the ease of manufactured by semiskilled labor. The dimensions of these computer parts were non-critical.

Fourth Generation of Computer

                                                Fig: Cache Diagram of PDP-11.

The processor architecture of PDP-11 has orthogonal instruction set. The PDP-11 supports the hardware interruption at the four priority levels. In these computers, the interruption vectors are blocks of two 16-bit words each in low kernel address space. The first word of the interruption vector contains the address of the interrupted service routine, and the second word of interruption includes the value to be loaded into the priority level.

The Advantages of the fourth generation

  1. These computers are used for the general purpose.
  2. There is no need for the air conditioner when we use the computer of the fourth generation.
  3. The computer of the fourth generation was more reliable than the previous generation.
  4. These computers can perform the calculation of data in picoseconds.
  5. The computer of the fourth-generation consumed less electrical power as compared to the previous generation of computer.
  6. The heat generation is less as compared to the previous computer.
  7. The maintenance cost is very low in the fourth generation of computer.
  8. These computers are microprocessor-based systems.
  9. The memory storage is increased in the computers of the fourth generation.
  10. The processing power and speed have increased in these computers.
  11. The size of peripheral devices become small in the fourth generation.
  12. The networking features were developed in the computers of the fourth generation.
  13. The output was more reliable and accurate now in these computers.
  14. These computers are less need to repair.
  15. The computers of the fourth-generation are mainly used for commercial production.

The disadvantage of the fourth generation The latest technology is needed for the manufacturing of microprocessors.