Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device

Components

Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware

Memory

Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports

How

How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc

Questions

Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post

Difference

Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs

Misc

Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick

What is Microphone?

Microphone is an input device that converts audio or any sound vibration into electric signals, and saves the audio in digital or analog format. It was invented by E. Berliner in 1877 and used a diaphragm made up of liquid connected by a needle to convert audio signals. Nowadays, microphones are incorporated in almost all mobile phones, laptops, and computers. They even come with built-in microphones. The purpose of the microphone is to record conversations, speech, or music. It is designed to record the sound rather than produce its own.

What Is A Microphone

Each microphone is specifically designed to serve a particular purpose. The main purpose is to record the sound but what is to be recorded is also equally important. What is being recorded is determined by the directionality of the microphones. Based on directionality, the microphones can be classified into two types:

  1. Omnidirectional Microphones: This allows the user to record all the sounds in a surrounding, but it lacks noise cancellation, which means that they cannot focus the sound from a particular source.
  2. Bidirectional Microphones: Bidirectional microphones allow users to record sounds from two ends; they are best suited for recording interviews.

The user can also use two unidirectional microphones instead of one bidirectional microphone to fulfil the same purpose.

History of Microphones

The 1600s: Microphones are always associated with recording sounds, songs, or as an entertainment device. The development of the microphone began with scientists' attempts to magnify the primary sound.

1665: It was the 19th century when the word microphone was first used; by 1665, Robert Hooke could broadcast audio signals over a large distance. It was done by using a string phone.

1827: The first major step in developing the microphone was taken by Charles Wheatstone. He was a physicist who researched various domains. He also worked on the transmission of sound waves in various mediums. His curiosity led him to develop a device that enabled the user to amplify the low sounds and called this device the microphone.

1876: E. Berliner is known for his invention of the gramophone and its record, but he was also behind the development of the microphone. He not only developed the first microphone that used a liquid diaphragm, but he also made changes to the previously existing technologies such as the telephone by adding a voice transmitter to improve the sound transmission.

 1878: After developing the liquid microphone, British-American music professor David Hughes developed the first carbon microphone. They are still used in various industries.

1915: There was an improvision made in the previous microphone by introducing a vacuum tube amplifier. It allowed the user to enhance the volume of the device. 

1916: E.C. Wente developed used a capacitor to develop an electrostatic microphone. This improved the sound quality of the telephones but had a reverse effect on the microphone.

The 1920s: With radio gaining popularity in the 1920s, the demand for good microphones increased drastically. The RCA company develop the ribbon microphone to satisfy this demand.

1928: Georg Neumann developed the first-ever condenser microphone available for sale in the market. Its shape resembled that of a bottle. This device led to an increase in the popularity of George Neumann and Corporation.

1931: The dynamic microphone was launched in the market.

1957: Raymond Litke developed the wireless microphone; this device was specifically built for use with radio or television, and he filed a patent for the device.

1959: This was the first true unidirectional microphone developed to record a particular sound. It ignored all the noise that came from around the microphone. It only recorded the sound that was directly above the microphone.

1964: Electret microphone was developed by James West and Gerhard Sessler. This microphone model was reliable, and it ensured a greater precision in the recording of sound. The manufacturing cost of this microphone was quite low, and it was easy to manufacture, making it an ideal product for the market. It was also smaller than the previous versions of microphones.

The 1970s: Advancements were made in both condensers and dynamic mics, improving the quality of sound recorded in the microphone. Even the low sound could be recorded using these microphones equipped with the newer versions of the mic.

1983: It was the first time the microphone was introduced with a mic that enabled it to amplify the sound and record it; it had a clip attached that could be used to hold the mic near the speaker's mouth by attaching it to his clothes.

In the 1990s: Neumann Corporation introduced a new design for the condenser microphone; this model exceeded the quality. It was specifically designed to be used during the live performance, so the company ensured that it was of the best quality with a great design.

The 2000s: Micro electro-mechanical microphones gained popularity as they were easily portable. They were equipped with headsets, laptops, and systems too. Portable mics also became popular. Many portable devices were introduced in these decades, such as wearable devices, smartwatches, etc.

2010: This year, high-quality microphones were launched in the market that could be stuck to a spherical object and record the sound coming from all directions.

Present: Even till now, advancements have been made in the field. New models of microphones are launched with improved quality.

Enhancement in the Technology

  • Since the development of the first microphone, many changes are done to the microphones to improve the quality of sound and reduce the size of the microphone.
  • The first microphone was called the liquid microphone because the diaphragm was made up of liquid; it had a needle used to record the sound produced in the surrounding. Later the liquid diaphragm was replaced with a metallic sheet.
  • Carbon microphones were equipped on the telephones for better reception of the call. Carbon was used to develop the microphones because of the variable resistance; it was pressured between two metals placed and then converted the sound waves into electrical signals.
  • Condenser microphones are similar to carbon microphones; the difference is that instead of using the variable resistance of the carbon, these microphones use the varied charger that is stored in the capacitor. The diaphragm act as the wall of the capacitor. The wall of the capacitor is connected to the battery and has a fixed charge associated with it. This wall is responsible for increasing the intensity of the signal. They were used in electronic devices such as phones, laptops, and computers.
  • Crystal Microphones utilize a crystal that can generate a piezoelectric effect when compressed by the diaphragm. This property is used to convert the audio into electrical signals; every time a sound is produced, the diaphragm is compressed, which produces a small electric current. Thus, enabling the user to record the sound.
  • Dynamic Microphones have a freely suspended coil between two magnets, thus creating a magnetic field around the coil. This coil is connected to membranes that are responsible for generating frequency response. It used electromagnetic induction to convert the vibrations into electric signals. They were used in live concerts and performances. 
  • Laser microphones record the sound from the surface, and they can also record sound originating from a distance. It can record the sound from all directions, and these vibrations are converted into sound signals which are then translated into electrical signals.

Functions Performed by a Microphone Equipped in the Computer

  • It is used to record the surrounding voice.
  • It can be further used to identify different voices.
  • It also enables the user to record music in the system. 
  • It can be used while playing multiplayer games on the computer.
  • It allows the user to communicate over the internet using applications like skype.
  • It can be used for communication during live streams.

Working of a Microphone

When a sound is produced, it produces energy in sound waves. When this sound wave collides with the diaphragm, a diaphragm is a very thin membrane usually made up of plastic; it is attached so that it can perform a to and fro motion when it collides with a sound wave.

It is attached to a coil that is suspended in a magnetic field. When the diaphragm moves, it causes a motion in the coil. Thus, producing electric current due to electromagnetic induction.

This electric current is passed to the microphone, which then uses it to record the sound, and then this current is sent further to the drive used to store the sound in the system permanently.

Types of Microphones

There are various types of microphones depending on the directionality and structure of the microphone. Let us discuss each type individually.

Omnidirectional Microphone

What Is A Microphone

As the name suggests, omnidirectional means from all directions. These microphones record the sound from all directions. It is not possible to focus on a particular sound using these microphones as it records all the voice within a specific range no matter from which direction it originates. These microphones are used during music recording, where it is necessary to record all the sound, including the voice of the singers and the sound of various musicians.

Unidirectional Microphone

What Is A Microphone

They are the complete opposite of the omnidirectional microphone, as the user can record the sound from only one specific direction. It only records a voice when directed in a particular direction. This microphone is of great use when delivering a speech or during a podcast. It records maximum sound when the source is just in front of the microphone.

Close-Talk Microphone

This microphone is designed to reduce the surrounding noise usually recorded in other microphones. The user needs to keep it close to the sound source while recording.

What Is A Microphone

They are equipped with phones, Bluetooth headsets, and other devices that help while communicating. This microphone works as a noise cancellation device; it has a hum-bucking coil that reduces the surrounding noise and ensures high-quality voice recording. It is specifically used with voice recognition software.

Bidirectional Microphone

What Is A Microphone

Clip-on Microphone

What Is A Microphone

It consists of eight microphones that are arranged in a manner that they can perceive sounds with high sensitivity. The source of the should is either forward or at the backside of the microphone. This microphone is useful when the user needs to record communication between two people, such as during a session or an interview.

It is also called body-mic or the collar mic as the user attaches it to the clothes to keep it close to the mouth. It is used during public speaking, theatre or live interview, or concerts. It is useful when the user does not want to hold the mic in their hands. 

Parts of Microphone

Microphones are sensitive devices that are made up of many small components. Several components of the microphone are available for separate sale in the market. Here we will discuss some of the issues that can occur when one of these components does not work properly and how to solve the issue.

Wind Screen: This is a component of the mic of the microphone. It is the external component of the mic that is located below the circular barrier of the mic. It is made up of thin foam that ensures the best sound quality is produced. It prevents the rushing wind from entering the diaphragm so that no extra noise is recorded. There can be an issue in it when performing outdoor to prevent that they have an extra pop filter.

Diaphragm: This plays the role of an eardrum; when a sound wave enters the microphone, it hits the thin membrane that causes it to vibrate. This membrane is called the diaphragm. It converts the sound waves into electrical signals.

Magnetic Core: This is only present in dynamic microphones. The core is responsible for creating a permanent magnetic field in which the coil is freely suspended. This is used in microphones where electromagnetic induction produces electrical signals.

Coil: This is also present in dynamic microphones. The coil is attached to the diaphragm. When the signal collides with the sound wave, the diaphragm vibrates too. This causes a movement in the coil. It elongates and compresses in the magnetic field, which charges the coil and thus produces the electric current.

Capsule: It is the component responsible for converting the vibration from the sound into electrical signals recorded in the memory. Some microphone has capsules to perform this work while some don't. Some microphones provide an option to absorb the power from the mixer of the microphone by enabling phantom power from the setting. It can only be used when the microphone requires that reserve power.

Body: The quality of sound depends largely on the microphone's body. It even determines the lifespan of the microphone. It is responsible for holding the various components of the microphone. The quality of the material should be good. It protects the internal components from any external impact. It reduces the effect of the external environment on the microphone.

Output: This is located on the microphone's body and is responsible for connecting the microphone with the mic. They provide a port to plug the mic into it. Usually, we connect the XLR wired to the output, which is responsible for sending the stereo signals. The length of the cable may vary and depend upon the user's need. Some microphones even have cables already connected to the output.

Checking whether a system is equipped with a microphone or not

Two types of microphones can be used with the computer:

  1. Internal Microphones
  2. External Microphones

Internal Microphones: They usually come inbuilt into the computer. They are usually located on the bezel of the system. They are not visible to the eyes as they are enclosed in the system, and only the holes that allow the sound to pass through them are visible from the outside. Generally, a picture of the mic or a microphone is engraved on the system representing the location of the microphones in the system.

External Microphones: They are purchased separately and usually don't come with a system. There can be connected to the system using the sound card or the USB port. The sound card is located on the system's CPU; the speakers are also connected to this port.