Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is Data Manipulation?

Data Manipulation is the process in which the developer organizes the data making it more understandable by properly arranging it in the proper structure. For example, you have gathered the names of all the students then the data manipulation is performed by arranging the data in alphabetical order. After performing data manipulation, it is comparatively easier to retrieve information from the student's data. Thus, it is essential to perform data manipulation to make it easier to find the entry for a particular student and access the data.

It also enables the website owner to monitor the traffic on the website. The user can also know which content brings the most traffic to the website, particularly which one page is more popular.

Data manipulation is necessary for every field that deals with gaining insights from the data. It is also used by accountants or people associated with similar fields to compute the product costs and determine and predict future prices and taxes based on the previous patterns. The stock market analyzer also practices it. They use this method to forecast the performance of various stocks and compute their prices in the near future. The computer can also use it to represent the information to the user in such a manner that it is closest to reality or to perform data formatting on the computer.

The user can perform data manipulation using the DML commands. DML stands for Data Manipulation Language. It is a programming language that can alter the data and perform operations such as insertion, deletion, or altering the data inside the database. It is a language that enables the user to perform modifications on the data. The user can use these commands to perform changes in it easily.

Objective of Performing Data Manipulation

This is the age of information, but having information alone is not sufficient; it needs manipulation. Data Manipulation is the process that can be applied to the data to make it simple retrieval. It is essential for performing business and optimizing the whole process. The user is required to study the data that enables the user to manipulate the data and produce meaningful insights like understanding the latest trends.

It can be used to understand consumer behavior. It is an effective method to utilize the information to produce optimum results. 

Data Manipulation has many advantages. Some of the major advantages of performing it are as follows:

  • Consistent Data: DML commands can be used to organize the data; they can be arranged structurally. If the data is not structured properly, the data will be difficult to relate with something. It will be difficult for the reader to connect the information. It is a major problem when the user is trying to provide information about many factors simultaneously. If the information is gathered from various sources, there may be no singularity in the data. The consistent data is well organized.
  • Project Data: This feature of data manipulation is particularly used in finance-related fields. It provides in-depth knowledge about the data. It allows the user to study the historical trends, and that data can be used to forecast the trends of the near future.
  • Delete Redundant Data: Once the data is organized, it is easier to find the redundant data. The user arranges the data in a definite structure and all the related information. Also, it helps to maintain the data, and the user can easily identify the extra information that is not required.
  • Performing Operations on the Database: Various operations can be performed on the data using DML commands. The user can insert a new entry, delete a previous one, or can also update or convert the existing values of the data. The data can be used to optimize the business plan and benefit the business in multiple ways, such as increasing productivity, reducing the cost, or helping in attracting more customers to the business.

Steps Performed During Data Manipulation

The steps that are required to perform data manipulation are:

  1. The foremost step is to create a database to store all the data you have gathered from numerous sources. It is necessary to ensure all the data is stored in a single file.
  2. The data that is stored in the database is required to be organized properly into fields, and once the structuring of the data is complete. The next step is cleaning the stored data by entering the value for all the missing data. 
  3. The next step involves creating the database that includes defining fields and attributes for the database and assigning the values to these attributes and fields. Once you have created the database, you are all set to import the database. When you imported, the user can begin working on the data stored in the database.
  4. When all the above steps are performed successfully, you can perform the data manipulation, including CRUD operations on the database. The user can edit, delete and even merge the information stored in the database. It is also possible to insert new values into the data.
  5. Once the data is manipulated, it is comparatively easier for the user to draw hidden insights from the information. It is easy to analyze the data present in the database.

Why manipulates the data?

Data Manipulation requires extra effort and time, so why does the developer spend too much time performing all these steps even if they are unnecessary. Let us discuss the importance of manipulating the data. 

It is necessary to manipulate data as it provides important information that can help grow and provide new business opportunities. When collected it from various sources, the data is usually raw; it is quite essential to arrange the data in a structural format for easy understanding.

It also improves the performance of the business. The productivity can be increased, and the process can be made efficient by analyzing the data and using it to predict the trend, reducing the wastage and cutting the cost during the production. 

Below, some real-life scenarios explaining the requirement of data manipulation.

Format Consistency: When the data is collected from different sources, there is inconsistency in the information or the values of fields. The data collected from the surveys can be numerical, alphabetical, or in other formats. The user can implement DML commands on the database to overcome these inconsistencies. The data can be organized into structures. Once the data becomes consistent, it will become easy to compare and modify. The data becomes more transparent after performing the manipulation.

Historical Overview: It can be used for decision-making as it improves the quality of the decision. Performing the manipulation of the data from the previous projects can help to implement the knowledge from the data to judge the team size and have a rough understanding of the budget and time required to complete the project. 

Efficiency: The time the analyst uses to manipulate the data significantly reduces the time to draw the insights from the data. This will increase the efficiency of organizing the data. There is always the possibility that the same data have occurred multiple times, and reading or storing such data will affect the efficiency as it will require more space and time. The user can find the redundant information and even judge whether the information present is relevant or not. By performing manipulation, the user can isolate the relevant and irrelevant data. 

Nowadays, all the business models are performing well by using data manipulation, a simple example would be when you search for a particular product on an e-commerce website, and when you visit any of your social media, you will receive advertisements about similar products. There might be instances when you receive calls from marketers of such products. This is all possible because of the data manipulations.

The companies collect all the data by studying the user's online behavior. According to your search history and frequent searches that help it to understand your requirements better, and once all this data is collected, they use it to provide you suggestions regarding it. The data is mostly connected by the websites when the user agrees to the website's privacy policy before accessing it. So, it is always suggested that the user read the terms and conditions online before accepting them.

Tips while Performing Data Manipulation

What is Data Manipulation

Several tools can be used to perform data manipulation. The user can use database management software when dealing with very high data, but when the data is not very large. The user can use MS Excel to perform manipulation as it is not only easy to use but can also be used without requiring knowledge of any programming language.

  • Formulas and Functions: One of the most important benefits of using MS Excel is that users can use predefined functions to perform certain operations. It provides mathematical functions. The user can easily compute the sum, difference, product, or even perform division on the values in the cell using these functions.
  • Autofill: This feature comes in handy and increases the productivity of the task associated with entering the data in the fields. It can be used by the user when the information that is to be entered in the field is associated with a specific equation or follow the same pattern.
  •  The user can set an equation for determining the value of the entire field. If the user does not want to apply the autofill using the function, then the user can simply drag the left-right corner to the cell you want to fill the entries. This increases the user's efficiency and makes it simple to perform the manipulation.
  • Sort and Filter: This is another useful function provided by MS Excel for studying the data. The data is vast and vivid. It is always not necessary that the user want to study the entire data. When the user wants to achieve a specific goal, it is only better to study the data that helps achieve the data. The process of analyzing data can be simplified by filtering. It isolates specific data from the entire data, making it more easily readable. By sorting, the user can arrange the data in a sequence, making it easier to compare with other values in a field.
  • Removing Duplicates: Usually, the data is collected from multiple sources. The problem with assembling the data from all these sources into a single source is a high chance of redundancy in the data. The same set of data can frequently occur times. MS Excel allows the user to delete the duplicate data using Delete Duplicate. The user can easily remove the redundant spreadsheet from the database.
  • Combining Column: In MS Excel, the data is arranged into rows and columns. The information may require more than one cell. In MS-Excel, the data can be organized properly by merging the rows and columns. It allows the user to split and merge both columns and rows. It ensures that the complete application is visible to the user when accessing the data. 

Data Manipulation and Data Modification 

What is Data Manipulation

There are many instances when people confuse and use both terms interchangeably. These two terms are quite different.

So, let us discuss how data manipulation differs from data modification. 

Data Manipulation is associated with the arrangement of the data. It is the process of organizing the data into a structure. This makes it easier to understand, read and perform analysis of the data. The aim is to refine the data.

In comparison, data modification is associated with the data values. It involves making changes in the existing data. The change can be either in a value, field or even the complete data. Its aim is to alter the data.

Consider an example to get a clear idea of these terms. The price of a good is Rs.40, and the tax is Rs.10. On manipulating the data, the total cost can be computed for good is Rs.50. Suppose the tax is increased from Rs.10 to Rs.15. on performing the data modification, the new tax will be Rs.15, and the total cost will be changed to Rs.55.