Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What is Chat?

Chat is a form of communication that allows users to exchange messages in real time. It can be done through various platforms, including text messages, instant messaging apps, and chat rooms. One of the most popular forms of chat is instant messaging, which allows users to send and receive text messages in real time. This chat type is often used for personal communication, but it can also be used for business purposes, such as customer service or team collaboration. Instant messaging apps like WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, and WeChat have become extremely popular, with billions of users worldwide.

What is Chat

Chat rooms are another form of chat typically focused on a specific topic or interest. Users can join a chat room and participate in a group conversation with other users with similar interests. Chat rooms can be found on various platforms, including websites and social media sites. They can be used for various purposes, such as discussing a hobby, seeking support, or even dating.

Chatbots are another popular form of chat. These computer programs can simulate conversations with human users through text or voice interactions. Chatbots can be used for various purposes, such as customer service, information, or entertainment. They can be found on websites, mobile apps, and messaging platforms.

Advantages of chat

  • Real-time communication: Chat allows users to exchange messages in real-time so that conversations can happen quickly and efficiently. This is especially useful for businesses, where time is often of the essence.
  • Convenience: Chat can be accessed from various devices, including smartphones, laptops, and tablets. This makes it easy to communicate with others no matter where you are or what you're doing.
  • Cost-effective: Chat is often cheaper than other forms of communication, such as phone calls or video conferencing. This makes it a cost-effective option for both personal and business use.
  • Increased productivity: Chat can be used for team collaboration, increasing productivity by allowing team members to communicate and share information quickly and easily.
  • Personalization: Chatbots can be programmed to provide personalized responses to users, improving customer service and creating a more positive user experience.
  • Increased reach: Chat can reach a global audience, which can be especially useful for businesses that operate on a global scale.
  • Increased engagement: Chat can be used to increase customer engagement, which can help build brand loyalty and increase sales.
  • Flexibility: Chat can be used for various purposes, from personal communication to customer service, making it a flexible option for a wide range of users.
  • Accessibility: Chat can be done through text or voice interactions, and people with different abilities, such as hearing or visual impairments, can use it.

Chat is a convenient, cost-effective, and flexible form of communication that can be used for various purposes, from personal communication to business and customer service. It's a great way to increase productivity, reach a global audience, and improve customer engagement.

Disadvantages of chat

  • Limited nonverbal cues: Chatting lacks the nonverbal cues in face-to-face communication, such as body language and facial expressions. This can make it difficult to understand the tone or intent of a message and can lead to misinterpretation.
  • Lack of privacy: Unauthorized parties can easily intercept or access chat conversations. This can concern personal and business use, as sensitive information can be compromised.
  • Distraction: Chat can be a distraction, particularly in the workplace. It can be difficult to focus on tasks if notifications for incoming messages are constantly interrupted.
  • Addiction: Chatting can become addictive and consume a lot of time, leading to a lack of productivity and neglect of other important activities.
  • Technical issues: Chat requires a stable internet connection and a compatible device to work properly. Technical issues, such as server downtime or network problems, can cause interruptions in communication.
  • Limited context: Chatting is often a short text-based communication, making it difficult to convey complex ideas or emotions. Additionally, chat conversations often need more context, making it hard to understand the meaning behind the message.
  • Language barriers: Chatting can be difficult when people speak a different language, leading to misunderstandings and miscommunications.
  • Spam or fraud: Chat can send spam messages or perform fraud. This can be a problem for both personal and business use, as it can lead to unwanted or harmful messages being sent.

While chat can be a convenient and effective form of communication, it also has disadvantages, such as lack of privacy, distraction, technical issues, and language barriers. It's important to be aware of these potential downsides and take steps to mitigate them when using chat as a form of communication.

What is Chat

Uses of Chat

Personal communication: Chat is a popular way for people to communicate with each other, whether with friends and family or with new people they meet online.

Customer service: Chat can be used as a customer service tool, allowing businesses to provide support and answer customer questions in real time.

Team collaboration: Chat can be used for team collaboration, allowing team members to communicate and share information quickly and easily.

Marketing: Chat can be used for marketing purposes, such as to send promotional messages or engage with customers.

E-commerce: Chat can be integrated into e-commerce websites to provide real-time support to customers during their shopping experience.

Virtual events: Chat can be used during virtual events, such as webinars or online conferences, to allow attendees to ask questions and interact with the presenter.

Education: Chat can be used for educational purposes, such as facilitating discussions between students and teachers or providing students with real-time support.

Healthcare: Chat can be used for healthcare purposes, such as providing telemedicine services or facilitating communication between healthcare professionals.

Banking and finance: Chat can be used for banking and financial purposes, such as to provide customers with account information or to assist with transactions.

Chat is a versatile tool that can be used for many purposes, from personal communication to customer service, marketing, education, and healthcare. Its real-time nature and ease of use make it a popular choice for many applications.

Tips for Using

Be clear and concise: When sending a chat message, be clear and concise. Avoid using abbreviations or slang that may not be very clear to others.

Use proper grammar and spelling: Using proper grammar and spelling helps to convey your message more effectively and reduces the chances of misunderstandings.

Be mindful of tone: Chatting lacks the nonverbal cues present in face-to-face communication, so it can be easy for the tone of a message to be misinterpreted. Try to use an appropriate tone that matches the context of the conversation.

Avoid multitasking: When using chat, avoid multitasking with other activities, as this can lead to distractions and reduce the effectiveness of your communication.

Stay organized: Use chat tools to organize conversations and keep track of important messages. This helps keep conversations from getting overwhelming and reduces the chances of missing important information.

Be respectful: When using chat, always be respectful of others and avoid using language that may be offensive or hurtful.

Verify information: Before sending sensitive or important information via chat, verify the information to ensure it is accurate and appropriate for the conversation.

Be aware of security: When using chat for business purposes, be aware of security and privacy concerns. Use secure chat tools and avoid sending sensitive information that unauthorized parties could intercept or access.

Following these tips ensures that chat is used effectively and that conversations are productive, respectful, and secure. By taking the time to use chat appropriately, you can maximize its benefits and avoid common pitfalls.


Chat is a real-time communication tool that allows individuals and organizations to communicate and exchange information quickly and easily. It can be used for various purposes, including personal communication, customer service, team collaboration, marketing, e-commerce, virtual events, education, healthcare, banking, and finance. To use chat effectively, it's important to be clear and concise, use proper grammar and spelling, be mindful of tone, avoid multitasking, stay organized, be respectful, verify information, and be aware of security concerns. By following these tips and using chat appropriately, individuals and organizations can maximize their benefits and effectively communicate with others.