Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

How to use a computer keyboard

Alphanumeric, function, control, and arrow keys are on the keyboard. The left hand holds the "asdf" keys, while the right-hand holds the "jkl;" keys. To advance or switch between boxes, press Shift+Tab. I can navigate to an error and fix it using the arrow keys.

Every kind of computer uses a keyboard as an input device. Even more recent gadgets like smartphones and tablets continue to have an on-screen keyboard. New computer users can utilize the information on this page to get more comfortable and proficient with the keyboard. We advise new users to read through each area below and apply each technique.

Connecting the keyboard

The keyboard must be correctly connected to the computer before you can use it. See our instructions on connecting and installing a keyboard if you have a new computer and need assistance connecting the keyboard, or the keyboard is not working.

How to turn on the keyboard

All keyboards that have a connection securing them to the computer come on automatically when the computer does. If you have a wireless keyboard, you can switch it on and off to save battery life. To use these keyboards, turn the keyboard over and look at the back. A switch near the bottom or top of the keyboard should allow you to turn it on or off.


By hitting the Caps Lock, Scroll Lock, or Num Lock keys, you can check to see if the computer is on and then look for an indicator light. A light should be turned on or off when these keys are pressed. If there are no lights, then the keyboard is broken.

Familiarizing yourself with the keyboard

An overview of a desktop computer keyboard may be found below. The keyboard's main components are seen in this image. Below, each section is detailed in more depth.

How to use a computer keyboard

Overview of each section of the keyboard

Alphanumeric keyboard

Most of the keyboard, which includes letters, numbers, punctuation, and certain symbol keys, is alphanumeric. If the first six letters of your keyboard spell out "QWERTY," you are using a QWERTY keyboard. The illustrations depict the QWERTY keyboards that the majority of users use today.

There are rows of keys for each group of alphanumeric keys. Typically, a keyboard has six rows of keys, with the home row where your fingers rest. The function key row, number key row, top row, bottom row, and spacebar row are additional keyboard rows.

Function keys

Programs employ the function keys, sometimes known as the F1 through F12 or F19 keys, as shortcuts for frequently used actions. By using the F1 key, you may access online assistance for most programs.

The function keys on some keyboards can be used to launch extra computer features. The function keys can be used in conjunction with the Fn key to doing additional tasks, such as adjusting the screen's brightness, gaining access to media controls, or shutting down the computer.

How to use a computer keyboard

Control and toggle keys

The user has more cursor and text manipulation control thanks to the control and toggles keys. In many programs, they can also be used as shortcut keys. See our definition of control keys for more details and examples.


Ctrl keys are distinct from control keys.


The keypad allows the user easy access to numbers and mathematical operations like plus, divide, times, and subtract, despite not being included on all

computer keyboards, particularly laptops. Visit the numeric keypad page for further details, images, and relevant links.

Wrist pad

The Saitek keyboard in our illustration contains a wrist pad to assist the user's wrists. Hundreds of different wrist pads are available at a computer store or online, even though many keyboards do not come with one.

Warning: Wrist pads are debatable, and many ergonomic experts claim using one could increase stress and contribute to carpal tunnel syndrome.

Arrow keys

The cursor can be moved, or a highlighted selection can be changed using the four arrow keys. Visit our arrow keys page for further details.

How to use a computer keyboard

Special keys or media keys on a multimedia keyboard

Additional buttons on multimedia keyboards are absent from standard keyboards. Information on our special keys can be found there.

Start typing and how to position hands

Put your hands in the right position and the home row keys with your fingertips before you start typing. Check your fingers while you type to ensure they are all pressing the right keys.


The "F" and "J" keys include tiny bumps (homing bars) that make it easier to locate the correct location without having to glance at the keyboard. You ought to be able to feel these lumps with your index fingers on both hands.

The home row keys and where each finger should be placed. The A, S, D, and F keys should be covered by your left hand, while the J, K, L, and; keys should be covered by your right hand. Additionally, each color serves to show which fingers control which key.

You are strongly encouraged to practice using the correct approach on this page if you have never learned how to type properly and now hunt-and-peck. This not only increases your typing speed but also eases any strain that comes from having to glance down at the keyboard.

Practice typing the line below, each letter of the alphabet, after your hands are in the correct position.

Correcting errors

As you type, mistakes are unavoidable, but the backspace and delete keys allow you to fix them. Backspace and delete will remove a character to the left or right of the cursor, respectively.

Note: Two delete keys are included on Apple keyboards. The keyboard's other delete key and the large delete key have the same functionality. Delete, or backspace can be used repeatedly to remove several characters.

Using the arrow keys to move around

Avoiding the usage of the mouse whenever feasible is one of the finest ways to increase your keyboard proficiency. It takes a lot of time to transfer your hand from the keyboard to the mouse and back to the keyboard. The arrow keys can move the cursor instead of the mouse, which is one way to avoid using it.

Move the pointer to the proper spot in the practice area below using the arrow keys to change or add new text.


To make the text cursor jump into the text field below, press Tab on your keyboard. A web page's pointer or selection is moved to the following Using the "Tab" key, go to an interactive element such as a button, text box, or hyperlink.

Text is being wiped one letter and one word at a time

Removing multiple letters, or even an entire word, is also essential at once. To remove all the text from a line, use the procedure below.

Uppercase, lowercase, and all caps

Your computer always types lowercase letters unless you activate the Caps Lock key. Hold down the Shift key on the keyboard while pressing the letter you wish to capitalize on, making the initial letter of a sentence or word uppercase.

The LED light should turn on to show that the Caps Lock is enabled if you wish all words to be capitalized. When activated, everything stays capitalized unless you press the Caps Lock key again or continue to hold down the Shift key.

Use the practice of typing uppercase and lowercase letters provided below.

Getting to the start and finish of a line

To jump to the line's beginning, you can alternatively utilize the Home and End keys. To navigate to the beginning and end of a line of text, use the method below.

Highlighting text using the keyboard

Using the Shift key on the keyboard, you can also highlight text. To highlight specific words in the statement below, follow the guidelines below.


When text has been highlighted, you can either start typing to replace the highlighted content or use the Del key to remove all highlighted text.

Typing numbers and symbols above numbers

There are two places on the keyboard where numerals can be typed. The numerals and symbols that appear above the numbers at the top of the keyboard are covered in this section. We'll explain how to use the 10-key keypad later.

The top row of the keyboard's numerals 1 through 0 serve both the number and the symbol purposes. If you press the number key while holding down Shift, the symbol for the number is input as well. For instance, pushing the number 2 key displays "2" on display. The at sign (@) is entered by pressing 2 while holding down Shift.

Using the keyboard, copy and paste text

Every person who uses a computer will occasionally copy and paste the text. Learning how to use the keyboard to copy and paste text can be quite time-efficient.

Keyboard Ergonomics and Setup

Many issues can result from poor keyboard use, from short-term difficulties like aching wrists to long-term issues like Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. These conditions can take years to develop and, once established, are difficult, if not impossible, to reverse. That is why, even if you are not currently experiencing discomfort, it is critical to position and operate your keyboard correctly to avoid future difficulties.

1. If you don't currently use an adjustable keyboard/mouse tray, consider attaching one to your surface.

This provides a significantly broader range of adjustments and aids in the maintenance of a correct ergonomic configuration. Choose a system that allows you to modify the height of the keyboard, tilt it away from you slightly for better posture (negative tilt), and operate the mouse with your upper arms relaxed and as near to the body as feasible.

2. Make sure the height of your keyboard allows you to keep an "open angle" with your arms.

The keyboard should be situated just above the level of your lap in the right position. (If you don't have an adjustable keyboard tray, you may need to modify your chair height.) this is lower than most people put their keyboard, but it allows your arms to dip downward when typing, leaving your elbows at a comfortable "open" posture.

3. If your keyboard is lower than the desk surface, tilt the back edge of the keyboard slightly down (known as "negative keyboard tilt").

Try to prevent positive keyboard tilt (i.e., where the top row of keys is noticeably higher than the bottom row of keys). Using a little negative keyboard tilt can assist you in keeping your wrists in the right (neutral) posture. Also, ensure that any "legs" attached to the bottom front of your keyboard are not stretched.

4. If you use a keyboard tray, ensure enough room for your mouse.

Keep your mouse close to your keyboard so you don't have to reach far to get it.

5. If you have a broad chest, consider a "split" keyboard.

A split keyboard divides the keyboard into two halves, each of which points slightly outwards. The outward angle lets your wrists and forearms point inward without requiring your elbows to come in as far, better conforming to the contours of your body. Conversely, thinner people may find a traditional "straight" keyboard more comfortable.

Tips for healthy keyboard usage

1. When typing, use a soft touch (do not smash on the keyboard!).

Try to depress the keys with as little force as possible. Because the tendons from your fingers join near your elbow, hitting the keys excessively hard might cause problems that you may not identify with your keyboard, such as discomfort and inflammation in your elbows (Epicondylitis).

2. Maintain a neutral (straight) wrist posture, not bent up or down.

When you're typing, your forearms slump as your arms weary, causing your wrists to extend even further—yet another reason to take frequent stretches or rest breaks! Extending and flexing your wrists repeatedly compresses tissues inside the wrist's carpal tunnel. This can result in discomfort and ailments such as carpal tunnel syndrome.

3. Maintain an open elbow angle of 90 degrees or better.

Keeping your elbows bent less than 90 degrees can result in nerve compression, resulting in aching wrists and arms. To attain a comfortable position, adjust the height of your chair or keyboard tray.

4. Maintain a comfortable posture with your shoulders relaxed and your elbows at your sides.

Your forearms should be parallel to the ground. If your chair has armrests, they should support your elbows pleasantly during rest intervals. It would be best if you didn't have to elevate your shoulders to reach the keyboard; instead, consider elevating your chair.

5. Use wrist and arm supports exclusively when resting, not while typing.

If your workplace has wrist or armrests, utilize them while taking breaks. When typing, never use your wrist or armrests. A wrist rest should be utilized to support the heel of your palm, not your entire wrist.