Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types

What is Thermos flask?

A vacuum flask sometimes referred to as a Dewar flask, Dewar bottle, or Thermos is an insulating storage container that considerably extends the amount of time that the contents of the flask remain hotter or colder than the surroundings. Sir James Dewar created the vacuum flask in 1892, which consists of two flasks joined at the neck and nested inside one another. Since there is essentially no air in the space between the two flasks, there is little to no heat transfer through conduction or convection. This eliminates condensation on the outside of the flask when used to hold cold beverages.

What is Thermos flask?

Domestically, vacuum flasks are used to keep cooked meals warm and beverages hot or cold for lengthy periods of time. Thermal cooking is another use for them. In industry, vacuum flasks are used for a variety of tasks.

History of Thermos flask

As a result of his research on the topic of cryogenics, Scottish scientist Sir James Dewar invented the vacuum flask, known as a Dewar flask in his name, in 1892. Dewar built a brass chamber and surrounded it with another chamber to maintain the temperature of the palladium while conducting experiments to find the element's specific heat. To set the temperature of the contents, he partially vacuumed the space between the two chambers. Dewar declined to file for a patent on his creation.

What is Thermos flask?

As a result, the flask - as improved upon by others utilizing cutting-edge materials like glass and aluminum - became an important instrument for conducting chemical research as well as a staple household item. Reinhold Burger and Albert Aschenbrenner, two German glassblowers, quickly put Dewar's invention into wide usage in 1904 after understanding that it could be used to keep hot drinks hot and cold drinks cold. They also developed a flask shape that was more robust and appropriate for regular usage. Although the German men who found the Dewar flask's commercial applicability gave it the name Thermos and later claimed ownership of both the commercial product and the brand trademark, the Dewar flask design was never granted a patent.

Dewar later lost a legal battle against the firm in an attempt to assert his ownership of the idea. Thermos bottle performance and production were greatly enhanced and refined by the Viennese inventor and businessman Gustav Robert Paalen, who created a variety of models for domestic use, patented them, and widely distributed them through the Thermos Bottle Companies in the US, Canada, and the UK, which acquired licenses for their respective national markets.

The American Thermos Bottle Company established a large-scale manufacturing facility in Norwich, Connecticut, which lowered costs and allowed for the widespread distribution of the product for use at home. The corporation gradually increased the size, shapes, and materials of these consumer goods, which were largely used to transport hot or cold drinks on camping vacations and to carry coffee on the move. Eventually, other producers created comparable goods for consumer usage. Such a vacuum-insulated container for liquids subsequently came to be known by the term "thermos," which later became a generic trademark

The commercial "Thermos" was developed into a common item, and the vacuum flask continued to be utilized for numerous types of scientific operations. Although Thermos is still a registered trademark in certain countries, a court in the United States ordered it to be genericized in 1963 because it had come to be thought of as a general term for vacuum flasks. There are other vacuum flasks, though. Design A flask is made up of two containers that are linked at the neck and one inside the other. Air is partially removed from the space between the two vessels, generating a partial vacuum that lessens heat transfer or convection.

What is Thermos flask?

Silvering the flask sides towards the gap can reduce heat transfer by thermal radiation, but this can become troublesome if the flask's contents or surroundings are extremely hot; Vacuum flasks typically store contents below the boiling point of water because of this.

Since there is no vacuum inside the flask, the majority of heat transfer takes place through the neck and opening. In addition to being composed of metal, borosilicate glass, foam, or plastic, vacuum flasks frequently contain an opening stopper made of cork or polyethylene plastic.

Frequently utilized as insulated transport containers are vacuum flasks. Spacers are placed between the interior and outside shell of vacuum flasks that are so huge or long that the inner flask occasionally needs additional support. These spacers serve as a thermal bridge and lessen the flask's insulation to some extent when they come into touch with the interior surface. Double vacuum flasks are used in many technological applications, including MRI and NMR devices. There are two vacuum portions on these flasks. One vacuum section separates the liquid helium and liquid nitrogen in the inner and outer flasks, respectively. This limits the loss of priceless helium. The radiation shield and neck of the vacuum flask have also been improved, and both of these feature’s aid in lessening evaporation from the flask.

Research and industry for flash freezing, sample preparation, and other activities requiring the generation or maintenance of an extremely low temperature, liquid nitrogen, which has a boiling point of 77 K, is routinely stored in vacuum flasks in laboratories and industries. Larger vacuum flasks are used to store substances like oxygen and nitrogen, which turn gaseous at well below room temperature. In these cases, heat loss into the freezing interior of the bottle causes the liquid to slowly boil off, necessitating either a narrow-unstoppered opening or a stoppered opening with a pressure relief valve to prevent pressure from building up and ultimately shattering the flask.

The vacuum flask's insulation causes a very gradual "boil," which keeps the contents liquid for a long time without the use of refrigeration machinery. Traditionally, the large Zener diodes, standard cells, and printed circuit board of precision voltage-regulating devices used as electrical standards were enclosed in vacuum flasks. The flask was used to keep temperature-related changes in the output voltage of the Zener standard to a few parts per million or less. It also helped maintain the Zener temperature over a long period of time.

One significant application was in Guideline Instruments' Transvolt; type 9154B saturated standard cell; an electrical voltage saturated cell was held in place using a big glass vacuum plug in a silvered vacuum flask that was enclosed in foam insulation. The device produced 1.018 volts with an accuracy of a few parts per million. As a result, NASA made considerable use of vacuum flasks in the Saturn launch vehicles' propellant tanks during the 1960s and 1970s. They can be used to store some types of rocket fuel. The form and shape of the Dewar flask were used as a model for optical experiments because it is believed that the shape of the two compartments with the space in between is similar to how light strikes the eye. The Canadian company's standard is produced

The foundation of a device used to passively insulate medicinal shipments is an industrial Dewar flask. The majority of vaccinations are heat-sensitive and need a cold chain system to maintain constant subfreezing temperatures. To keep vaccinations at or below 10 °C, the Arktek system uses eight one-liter ice blocks. Dewar flasks are used in the oil and gas sector to isolate the electrical parts of wireline logging instruments. By placing all delicate electronic components in a Dewar flask, standard logging instruments (rated to 350°F) are converted to high-temperature standards. safety Implosion hazards exist for vacuum flasks, and unexpected shattering of glass is a particular risk for vacuum-suspended vessels.

When the vessel's temperature changes quickly, chips, scratches, or cracks may be the first sign of a dangerous vessel collapse (when hot or cold liquid is added). It is advised that the Dewar vacuum flask be properly prepared by tempering before use in order to preserve and enhance its performance. Glass vacuum flasks are frequently fitted onto a metal base with the cylinder inside, coated with mesh, aluminium, or plastic to protect the cylinder from physical damage, or are fitted into a metal base to make handling easier.