Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device

Components

Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware

Memory

Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports

How

How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF

Questions

Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling

Difference

Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples

Misc

Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What is BIOS?

BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System. It is firmware that controls the basic functions of a computer, such as booting the system and communicating with the hardware. It is stored on a chip on the motherboard and is responsible for performing a power-on self-test (POST) when the computer is first turned on, and then locating and loading the operating system from the hard drive or another storage device. It also provides a user interface to configure the system's hardware settings and update the BIOS firmware. Furthermore, it acts as a bridge between the system hardware and the operating system.

What is BIOS?

Function of BIOS

The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) has several functions, which include:

Booting the computer: The BIOS performs a power-on self-test (POST) when the computer is turned on and locates and loads the operating system from the hard drive or another storage device.

Providing a basic interface for hardware: It provides a basic interface for communicating with the computer's hardware components, such as the keyboard, mouse, and other input/output devices.

Configuring hardware settings: The BIOS allows users to configure settings for the computer's hardware, such as the system clock, boot order, and power management settings.

Managing system resources: The BIOS manages system resources such as memory, IRQs, and DMA channels.

Power management: The BIOS controls the computer's power management, such as the power-saving features and sleep/hibernation modes.

What is BIOS?

Types of BIOS

There are several types of BIOS, which are as follows:

Legacy BIOS: This is the traditional BIOS firmware that has been used in computers for many years, and it is no longer in development and is being replaced by UEFI.

UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface): UEFI is a newer BIOS firmware that has largely replaced Legacy BIOS. It offers more advanced features such as support for larger hard drives and faster boot times.

Open-source BIOS: An open-source BIOS is available for anyone to view and modify the source code. This allows developers to customize the BIOS to their specific needs.

Vendor-specific BIOS: These are BIOS that are specifically developed and provided by a particular hardware vendor, such as Dell or HP. They are usually tailored to the specific hardware and features of the vendor's computers.

Option ROM: An option ROM, sometimes called an expansion ROM, is a BIOS-like firmware used to initialize specific hardware components such as a network card or a graphics card.

BIOS-based firmware: This is firmware that is designed to run on top of the BIOS, such as system management firmware, embedded controller firmware, and graphics firmware.

Note: UEFI is considered a replacement for Legacy BIOS. It offers more advanced features, such as support for larger hard drives, faster boot times, and more security features.

Difference Between BIOS And UEFI

  • BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) and UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) are both firmware that controls the basic functions of a computer, such as booting the system and communicating with the hardware. However, there are some key differences between the two:
  • Boot process: BIOS uses the Master Boot Record (MBR) to boot the system, while UEFI uses the GUID Partition Table (GPT). UEFI supports faster boot times and more flexible boot options.
  • Hardware support: UEFI supports larger hard drives and more advanced hardware features than BIOS, such as support for Secure Boot, which helps to prevent malicious code from running on the system.
  • User interface: UEFI has a graphical user interface (GUI), which makes it more user-friendly than BIOS.
  • Security: UEFI has more robust security features than BIOS, such as secure boot and built-in encryption.
  • Memory limit: BIOS is limited to 1 megabyte of memory, while UEFI supports more memory.

BIOS Modes

There are several BIOS modes or settings that can be configured, which include:

Legacy BIOS mode: This is the traditional BIOS firmware mode that has been used in computers for many years, and it is no longer in development and is being replaced by UEFI.

UEFI mode: This newer BIOS firmware mode has largely replaced Legacy BIOS. It offers more advanced features, such as support for larger hard drives and faster boot times.

Secure Boot mode: This is a security feature available in UEFI mode; it helps prevent malicious code from running on the system by verifying the operating system's and other software's digital signature before it is executed.

Compatibility Support Module (CSM) mode: This feature allows the UEFI firmware to support Legacy BIOS mode; it enables the system to boot using Legacy BIOS boot methods and load Legacy BIOS-only operating systems.

AHCI/RAID mode: This mode is related to the storage controller; AHCI (Advanced Host Controller Interface) mode is a standard for connecting storage devices, and RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) mode is used for creating redundant arrays of disks for increased data reliability.

Hardware monitoring mode: This mode allows the BIOS to monitor the system's components' temperature, voltage, and fan speeds and alert the user if any values fall outside of safe ranges.

Power management mode: This mode allows the configuration of power-saving features such as sleep and hibernation modes and power-saving features like Intel SpeedStep or AMD Cool'n'Quiet.

How does BIOS Work?

What is BIOS?

BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) is firmware that controls the basic functions of a computer, such as booting the system and communicating with the hardware. It is stored on a chip on the motherboard. It is responsible for performing a power-on self-test (POST) when the computer is turned on and then locating and loading the operating system from the hard drive or another storage device.

When a computer is powered on, the BIOS performs a power-on self-test (POST) which checks the system's hardware components to ensure they are functioning properly. The BIOS will display an error message if any issues are detected during the POST. Once the POST is complete, the BIOS locates and loads the bootloader from the hard drive or another storage device, which in turn loads the operating system.

The BIOS also provides a basic interface for communicating with the computer's hardware components, such as the keyboard, mouse, and other input/output devices. It also allows users to configure computer hardware settings, such as the system clock, boot order, and power management settings.

Additionally, the BIOS manages system resources such as memory, IRQs, and DMA channels and controls the computer's power management, such as the power-saving features and sleep/hibernation modes.

What is BIOS Setting

BIOS settings are the configuration options available in the BIOS firmware of a computer. These settings allow users to control various aspects of the computer's hardware and behaviour, such as the system clock, boot order, and power management settings. Some common BIOS settings include:

Date and Time: Allows users to set the system clock and calendar.

Boot Order: Allows users to specify the order in which the computer attempts to boot from different devices, such as the hard drive, CD/DVD drive, or USB drive.

Security: Allows users to set a password to prevent unauthorized access to the BIOS settings.

Power Management: Allows users to configure settings such as sleep and hibernation modes and power-saving features like Intel SpeedStep or AMD Cool'n'Quiet.

Hardware settings allow users to configure CPU fan speed, memory timing and voltage, and SATA controller mode.

These settings can be accessed by pressing a specific key during the computer's boot process, usually Del, F2, or Esc. It is important to be careful when modifying the BIOS settings, as incorrect settings can cause the system to become unstable or even prevent it from booting.

Upgrading of BIOS

Upgrading the BIOS, also known as flashing the BIOS, involves replacing the current BIOS firmware with a newer version. This process is typically done to fix bugs, improve security, or add new features. Here is the general procedure for upgrading the BIOS:

  • Download the latest BIOS firmware from the computer manufacturer's website or the BIOS firmware provider's website.
  • Create a bootable USB drive or CD/DVD with the BIOS firmware update files.
  • Restart the computer and enter the BIOS setup.
  • Locate the option to update the BIOS; this can be called "Flash BIOS" or "Update BIOS."
  • Follow the prompts to select the bootable USB drive or CD/DVD you created in step 2.
  • The update process will begin, and the computer will restart several times. Do not interrupt the process.
  • Once the update is complete, the computer will reboot, and the new BIOS version will be in effect.

It's important to follow the instructions provided by the computer manufacturer or BIOS firmware provider carefully, as a mistake during the update process could cause the computer to become unbootable. Also, it's recommended to back up important data before updating the BIOS.

BIOS Error Messages

BIOS error messages are codes or messages displayed by the BIOS when there is a problem with the computer's hardware or firmware. These error messages can indicate a wide range of issues, such as a malfunctioning component, a problem with the power supply, or a corrupted BIOS firmware. Some common BIOS error messages include:

"CMOS Checksum Error": This message indicates that the BIOS settings have become corrupted or that the CMOS battery is low.

"Disk Boot Failure": This message indicates that the computer is unable to locate the bootable device or that the bootable device is malfunctioning.

"Keyboard Error" or "Keyboard not Found": This message indicates that the keyboard is not properly connected or is malfunctioning.

"No Memory Detect": This message indicates that the computer is not detecting any memory or that the memory is not properly installed.

"BIOS ROM checksum error": This message indicates that the BIOS firmware is corrupted.

"CPU overheating": This message indicates that the CPU temperature is too high; a malfunctioning cooling system or a clogged air filter may cause it.

"Invalid system disk" or "non-system disk or disk error": This message indicates that the computer is not detecting a bootable device or that the bootable device is malfunctioning.

"System halted": This message indicates that the system has encountered a critical error and has stopped.

Note: these error messages may vary depending on the BIOS firmware version and the computer manufacturer, and the specific meanings of the messages may also differ. It's also important to refer to the computer's documentation or the manufacturer's website for more information on the specific error message and the recommended troubleshooting steps.