Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is Backup and Restore?

Backup and restore refers to technologies and practices for periodically copying data and applications to a separate, secondary device and then using those copies to recover the data and applications—and the business operations that rely on them—in the event that the original data and applications are lost or damaged due to a power outage, cyberattack, human error, disaster, or another unplanned event.

What is Backup and Restore?

Backup and restore are critical components of any company's disaster recovery strategy. Backup is required for both logical and physical security. A good backup strategy can help organizations recover swiftly from application failures or restore mistakenly erased files. Storage snapshots can also be used by other storage systems for rapid recovery. Backing up and restoring data is crucial for satisfying recovery point objectives (RPO) and recovery time objectives (RTO). Technologies such as containers, Kubernetes, and serverless present new opportunities in application development but still need a recovery plan in the event of a failure.

Importance of Backup and Restore

Data is not only the lifeblood of our non-public lives, but it's also the spine of businesses and groups. Losing these records, whether or not because of hardware failure, human mistakes, or cyberattacks, can bring about sizeable consequences. This is where the significance of backup and restore comes into play.

What are the benefits of having a backup and facts recovery plan?

  • Faster healing instances and higher availability with the aid of growing packages with failure in mind
  • Backup Application Nation will assist you in re-provision your utility from Pipeline
  • Allow builders to backup and repair environments
  • Minimize field disasters throughout your surroundings

Types of Backups

1. Full Backup: As the call implies, back up each and every record and folder (tough drives and greater) on the device. As the backup is full and entire, it takes longer time and takes up greater space than different backup alternatives, but the procedure of getting better lost statistics from backup is a lot faster.

2. Differential Backup: These backups begin with a full backup, which saves all of your documents. Then differential backups are carried out, which shop handiest the facts that have changed because of the preceding full backup. This saves loads of time and resources as compared to doing non-stop full backups. Its backups best keep changes to documents that changed compared to the previous backup and it also makes a copy of new documents if any. It additionally presents for a swifter repair time than incremental although it requires greater storage space.

3. Incremental Backup: An incremental backup is much like a differential backup; however, it best consists of the information that has been modified because the ultimate backup. The differential backup, then again, includes all statistics since the preceding complete backup. Although incremental backups need the least amount of storage area, they could take longer to retrieve facts because they should be performed independently for the duration of healing. However, due to the fact they are substantially smaller than complete or differential backups, they commonly require less restoral time.

4. Network Backup: It backs up a recording device from one system onto a backup device connected to any other system. It is called a far-flung or network backup.

Note: The recovery speed of Full Backup is the fastest, but its backup speed is the slowest. The Backup speed for incremental is the fastest and it calls for low reminiscence but its recovery pace is the slowest.

Types Of Data Recovery

Data restoration, frequently referred to as a restore, is required whilst facts of any kind are no longer readable or have been corrupted by using a malicious alteration. The act, procedure, or prevalence of improving records following inadvertent loss or corruption is known as restoration. The cost of improving records is high.

Causes Of Data Recovery

Businesses would possibly lose records in loads of ways. Mistakes in technology can from time-to-time result in statistics loss that is irreversible. In other instances, hackers control breaches or steer clear of an organization’s defense, taking records for their malevolent functions or draining the company’s resources. The following are the maximum standard motives for statistics loss:

1. Virus/Spyware/Malware assault.

2. Natural calamities

3. Hardware Failure

4. Human errors.

5. Manipulation in software programs and so on.

Logical statistics recovery

Logical statistics healing is done whilst the issue with information recuperation does not impact the tough disc itself but the laptop. This happens whilst a disc continues to be useful however a little information has been lost.

Optical restoration

CDs, DVDs, and other laser-written media are called optical garages. Utilizing information recuperation answers that specialize in optical storage offers the first-class opportunity to recover misplaced facts from optical media.

Cloud virtualization

Virtualization has an outstanding effect on Cloud Computing. In the case of cloud computing, users keep records inside the cloud, however with the help of Virtualization, users have the benefit of sharing the infrastructure. Cloud Vendors take care of the desired physical sources; however, these cloud vendors rate a massive amount for these offerings which influences every person or company. Virtualization helps Users or Organizations in preserving the services that are required by using a corporation via external (third-birthday party) people, which helps in lowering expenses to the organization. This is the way via which Virtualization works in Cloud Computing.

Best Practices for Backup and Restore

  • Regular Backups: The frequency of backups depends on your unique desires. For personal facts, weekly or monthly backups can also suffice, whilst corporations might also need day-by-day or even hourly backups.
  • Data Verification: Periodically check the integrity of your backups by way of performing check restores. It's critical to make sure that your backup copies aren't corrupted or incomplete.
  • Security Measures: Implement sturdy safety features to your backups, consisting of encryption to protect your records from unauthorized get admission to. Access controls need to restrict who can modify or get the right of entry to your backups.
  • Offsite Backup: In addition to local backups, preserve an offsite backup, both via cloud services or bodily copies stored in an exclusive area. This redundancy guards against nearby disasters that could break all of your information.
  • Documentation: Keep special statistics of your backup and restore techniques. This documentation should consist of your backup schedule, records verification technique, encryption keys, and a step-via-step records healing plan. During a crisis, having these facts comfortably to be had can significantly expedite the healing procedure.

Advantages of Backup and Restore

  • Backup and repair techniques substantially lessen the danger of data loss. In the event of hardware disasters, unintended deletions, or cyberattacks, having updated backups guarantee that you can quickly get better lost records.
  • For businesses, information is critical for daily operations. A well-implemented backup and restore approach enables enterprise continuity, ensuring that operations can resume with minimum disruption after a record loss occasion.
  • Hardware additives, consisting of hard drives, can fail all at once. Regular backups safeguard your records against the unexpected breakdown of those additives.
  • It's smooth to make accidental deletions or overwrite critical documents. Backup solutions offer a safety net, allowing you to get over those not-unusual mistakes.
  • Ransomware assaults, viruses, and malware can compromise your records. Having backups guarantees you can restore smooth copies of your information, decreasing the effect of such attacks.
  • With green backup and restore approaches in the region, statistics recovery is fast. This minimizes downtime and related costs, making it extra price-powerful than attempting to recreate misplaced facts from scratch.
  • Certain industries and agencies have difficulty with criminal and regulatory necessities regarding statistics retention and protection. Failing to conform can bring about penalties and fines. Proper backup and restore practices help you meet those responsibilities.
  • Cloud-based total backups provide the gain of having access to your facts from anywhere with an internet connection. This is especially precious for remote work and on-the-move entry to crucial files.