Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

Computer Memory

The computer memory is the storage space in the computer and related to the hardware integrated circuits. It can store the information for immediate use on the computer. The memory is a crucial element of the computer system. Memory and data storage can be measured in the megabyte, gigabyte, and terabyte.  The computer cannot perform even a simple task without memory.

Mainly two types of memory exist in the computer system, which is given below:

1. Primary Memory / volatile memory.

2. Secondary Memory / non-volatile memory.

types of memory exist in the computer system

1. Primary memory/ Volatile memory

The volatile memory is the one which loses its content or data when the computer or hardware device shuts down suddenly. The primary memory is directly accessed by the central processing unit. Various types of memory exist in computer memory, such as cache memory, ROM, etc.

There are two types of primary memory which are given below:

RAM (random access memory)

ROM (read-only memory)

RAM (Random Access Memory)

Random-access memory is a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly. It consists of one or more memory modules that are used for temporary data storage. The RAM is generally located on the motherboard.

Random-access memory is the computing system, where the storage of data is actively using. The RAM (Random access memory) contains multiplexing and demultiplexing circuitry. The RAM is found in servers, PCs, tablets, smartphones, etc.

It is also divided into two parts:

SRAM (static random access memory)

DRAM (Dynamic random access memory)

SRAM (Static Random Access Memory)

The Static Random Access Memory is a semiconductor type Random access memory.  It is faster and more expensive. The Static RAM is used for the CPU cache. It holds the data or information as long as the electric power is supplied.

It stores the bit of data or information on four transistors using two cross-coupled inverters. To access, transistors are used to manage the availability for the memory cell during reading and write operation.

DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory)

The Dynamic Random Access Memory is used to store data or program code. It is a common type of memory used in personal computers, workstations, and servers.

The Dynamic RAM stores every bit of data into separate passive electronic component inside an integrated circuit board. The DRAM has one capacitor and one transistor per bit, but the Static Random Access Memory requires six transistors. Millions of capacitors and transistors can fit on a single memory chip in SRAM. 

ROM (Read-only memory)

The data or information is pre-recorded in the Read-Only Memory. Once the data has been written onto the ROM chip, it cannot be removed. We can access that data at any time, and it is readable only. We are not able to write on ROM like RAM memory.  The ROM is a non-volatile memory. There are four basic types of Read-only memory which are given below:

PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory)

EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)

EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)

Flash memory.

PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory)

The Programmable Read-Only Memory is the memory that can be modified once and read many times by the user according to the requirement. It is a memory chip, so once the data written onto the PROM, it remains there forever. To write the data onto PROM chip, we need a unique device which is known as PROM programmer or PROM burner.

EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)

EPROM is a Programmable Read-Only Memory. This memory is erasable and re-usable according to the requirement. It is a non-volatile type of memory. The Dov Frohman develops the Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory in 1971 at Intel.

There is a transparent quartz crystal window at the top of this memory which allows the UV light to erase the data. The data or information on the EPROM memory can be deleted in a limited number of times.  

EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)

The EEPROM memory is integrated into microcontrollers for smart cards and remote keyless systems and other electronic devices to store a small amount of data or information. This memory has a limited life to erase and reprogramming of data or information.  It is organized as the arrays of floating-gate transistors.

Flash memory

Flash memory is an Electrically Erasable Programming Read-Only Memory. It is non-volatile memory chips which are used to the storage and transfer the data or information between the personal computer and digital devices. The flash memory can be electronically programmed and erased.

2. Secondary memory/ Non-Volatile Memory

Secondary memory or non-volatile memory is the memory where programs and data or information is stored in the long term basis. There are two common storage devices: Hard disk and Optical disk. It is not connected directly to the processor. Secondary memory has a large capacity to store the data. It is slow in speed and cheap memory.

Hard disk

 The hard disk is an electromechanical data storage device. It uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information. The hard disk drive contains magnetic disk or platters rotating at high speed.

The Hard disk

          Figure: The Hard disk

 It stores the data or information permanently. When the platters rotate the arm with the read/write head extends across the platters then, arm writes new data on the platters and read new information or data from them.

Structure of hard disk

The hard disk consists of several disks. There are three main parts of the hard drive which are given below:


The hard drive is divided into two tracks, and the tracks of all disks which have the same track value are known as a cylinder. The cylinder is the pile of tracks with the equal track value of the hard drive.  


The hard disk has two heads for reading or writing the data. One head is for the top, and the other head is used for the opposite side. The head value means the disk location and its side.


The track is composed of sectors on the hard disk. The number of tracks is the same on the hard drive. Sector is the minimal storage unit of the hard disk, and the size of one sector is always 512 bytes.

How can we store data in a hard disk?

The hard disk is the common storage which is used in the computer system. The stored data on the hard drive is in the form of 0s and 1s. The platter is the part of the hard disk that can store the data or information. The platters are the circular disk made of the non-magnetic material. The platters are further separated into the tracks and sectors.

Concept of trackers

 The disk drive is the circular path on the surface of the disk on which the information or data is magnetically recorded. We can read the recorded information or data from the disk. The track is a physical division of data in the disk drive. The number of the track on the single surface in a drive is exactly equal to the number of cylinders in the drive. Cluster

The cluster is the group of sectors within the disk, and it is larger than the sector. The hard drive can easily find all the clusters on the disk because each cluster has its ID. Mainly the cluster is the group of servers.

Formatting of hard disk

The disk formatting is a process of preparing the hard disk drive to store the data. The formatting operation is created by one or more new file system in some cases. The process of generating the new file system is referred to as high-level formatting.  Two levels of formatting hard disk drive are:

Low-level formatting

High-level formatting

Floppy disk

 Floppy disk is also called the Floppy, diskette or simply disk and the storage type disk to store the data or information. It is thin and flexible magnetic storage medium which is sealed in the rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes the dust particles.

The Floppy disk

       Figure: The Floppy disk

Compact disk (CD)

The compact disks are the small plastic disk which can store and retrieve the computer data or information.  It replaces the floppy disk because the compact disk is faster and could hold more information or data.

The Compact disk

   Figure:  The Compact disk

Pen drive

 Pen drive is the storage device which is known as the secondary memory of the computer. It is inserted into the USB port of the computer system.  The pen drive storage capacity range is from 8GB to 32GB and used to store graphics-heavy documents, photos, music files, and video clips.

  The selected files can be transferred from the pen drive to any workstation. The pen drive is light weighted and micro characteristics which makes it possible to carry from one place to another. Today, mostly the pen drive has password encryption feature. The important information of family, medical records, photos can be backed up by these types of pen drives.

Pen drive

      Figure: The Pen drive.

Zip disk

Zip disk is a small portable disk drive which is mainly used for backing up and archiving the files of the computer system. The zip drives come into two sizes, and the 100-megabyte size actually holds 100,431,872 bytes of data.

The zip drive can be bought in either the parallel or the small computer interface version. In the parallel version, the printer can be chained off the zip drive.

The Zip disk

       Figure: The Zip disk


IBM developed the microdrive in 1999. It is an extremely small hard disk that can fit in the compact card memory slot. The microdrive enables digital cameras which are design to use compact flash memory cards to gain larger storage capabilities.

The range of these drives is from 170MB to 8GB, and the compact flash memory replaces microdrives. When the microdrive released first, it was the smallest hard drive in the world.

These rotational media storage device designed to fit in the Compact flash type ll slots. Whether this drive is used to camera shooting or data storage is more than enough.


        Figure: The Microdrive.

Memory stick

The memory stick is the storage media to the portable device. It’s a removable flash memory card format and developed by Sony in 1998. These memory sticks were available in the sizes up to 128MB. The original memory stick comes in the size and thickness of the chewing gum stick. It is available with and without the magic gate support.

Memory stick

     Figure: The memory stick.

Smart cards

The smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit is a physical, electronic authorization device. It is used to control access to the resource. The smart card is the plastic credit card sized card with the embedded integrated circuit.

Some smart cards include the pattern of metal so that it can electrically connect with the internal chip. It can provide personal identification, authentication, data storage, and application processing. The smart cards are used as the transit passes and integrated ticketing by public transit operators. The smart cards provide strong security authentication for the single sign-in within the organization. The smartcard included a chip that can be either the microcontroller or embedded memory chip.

Smart cards

         Figure: The smart card.

Online storage site

The online data storage refers to the storage of electronic data with the third-party service access by the internet. It is alternative to the traditional local storage such as disk, tape drives, etc. Online storage sites are portable, like optical media and flash drives.

Digital versatile disk (DVD)

The versatile digital disk is the optical disk storage medium similar to the compact disk. It can store the data with the enhanced data storage capacities as well as higher quality of videos and audio formats. The versatile digital disk is also known as the digital video disk.

Digital versatile disk

      Figure: The Digital versatile disk.

It has a large capacity, and its size starts with the 4.7GB. The polycarbonate plastic makes the layers in the versatile digital disk. It is categorized in various ways based on their applications. They are used for data reading only, and we cannot write the data on the DVD.