Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick

What is CAD (Computer-aided design)?

The process of modeling physical structures and material qualities in two or three dimensions using specialized software on a computer is known as computer-aided design, or CAD. Nowadays, it has been very foremost in applied computer science for decades.

There is some important application for CAD, such as Metal fabrication, Carpentry, and 3D painting that uses in manufacturing.

What is CAD

There is also another one that is similar to CAD, that is CAGD (Computer-aided geometric design). In the CAGD, computer science is specifically focused on the creation of geometric shapes, which can use in applications, i.e., Animation and Graphics design, and are less used in 3D manufacturing.

You can also say CAD as CADD (Computer-aided design and drafting).

In modern times, many manufacturing processes have been self-acting with robots and software. The role of CAD in this process is very important. As a driver of purified manufacturing, CAD tools have updated over every year, and on changing of it, the best practices and standards have also updated.

Examples of CAD software

1. AutoCAD, 3ds Max, and Maya: Commercial CAD software titles produced by Autodesk.

2. Blender: An open-source CAD, animation, and image filtering application with an active community of customers.

3. SketchUp: A proprietary CAD application that runs in a web browser, previously developed by Google.

Who uses CAD?

A wide range of occupations employs computer-aided design. Numerous projects in the fields of architecture, the arts, and engineering significantly utilize CAD software. Use cases for CAD vary by sector and work duties. CAD tools are used in a variety of professions, such are as follows:

  • Architects
  • Engineers
  • City planners
  • Graphic designers
  • Animation illustrators
  • Drafters
  • Fashion designers
  • Interior designers
  • Exterior designers
  • Game designers
  • Product designers
  • Industrial designers
  • Manufacturers

CAD benefits

The usage of CAD design tools can provide engineers and designers with a number of advantages over the conventional technical drawing and manual drafting, including:

1. Lower production costs for designs.

2. Quicker project completion thanks to an effective design and workflow approach.

3. Changes can be done without affecting other design elements, eliminating the need to redo a sketch entirely.

4. In the file, it built a higher quality design with documentation like Angles, measurements, presets etc.

5. Explicit designs, better legibility and facility of interpretation by collaborators because it is manual drawings that are not explicit or detailed.

6. If you are using digital files, then it will make collaborating with colleagues easier.

7. Software property can help in generative design, solid modeling, and other scientific functions.

CAD software/tools

Designers and engineers can use a variety of CAD tools. Some CAD tools, like those used in industrial design or architecture, are made to match particular use cases and industries. Various industries and project types can be supported by the usage of other CAD software products. Among the most popular CAD tools are: Designers and engineers can use a variety of CAD tools. Some CAD tools, like those used in industrial design or architecture, are made to match particular use cases and industries. Various industries and project types can be supported by the usage of other CAD software products. Among the most popular CAD tools are:

  • MicroStation (offered by Bentley Systems)
  • AutoCAD (offered by Autodesk)
  • CorelCAD
  • IronCAD
  • CADTalk
  • SolidWorks
  • Onshape
  • Catia
  • LibreCAD
  • OpenSCAD
  • Vectorworks
  • Solid Edge
  • Altium Designer

Two dimensions CAD

The majority of us are familiar with 2D CAD models. These models are flat, two-dimensional drawings that show the general proportions, plans, and details required to duplicate or construct the object. These types of drawings can be seen in a wide range of fields, including fashion, interior design, civil engineering, architecture, automobile, cartography, and aerospace.

If you have ever set up a house, you likely don't want to forget how much money you spent on your floor plans. It's highly likely that the architect from whom you bought them used CAD to design them.

Three-Dimensional CAD

Similar to 2D CAD models, 3D CAD models are used for several purposes. Greater details about the different parts and assemblies of a real entity is provided by a three-dimensional CAD model. In other words, rather than only displaying an object's size and general shape, 3D models also demonstrate how it functions.


It has been discussed about how CAD is a visualizing tool that uses 2D drawings and 3D models, but how do you turn those visualizations into actual objects? Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is useful in this situation. Numerical control software that encodes automated instructions for a specific machine is used by CAM to process the data.

  • 3D printing,
  • CNC routing, and
  • Laser cutting and engraving.

CAD and CAM work better together because they allow users more control over the design and fabrication processes.


The hardware you need depends greatly on the type of material you plan to create. To set up a suitable workstation for your CAD requirements, you should be cautious of three key components:

1. Processor: Here, it's important to look at the processor's number of cores and threads because some CAD tools benefit from multiple cores while others can't handle them or don't require them.

2. Random-access memory (RAM): Most CAD programmers can benefit from random-access memory (RAM), which is one of its components. Better speed in multitasking tasks like rendering or running many programmers at once is ensured by having enough RAM.

3. Graphics processing unit (GPU): When discussing CAD, graphics cards are needed as they directly enable visualization. Nvidia and AMD are the two leading manufacturers of GPUs. Again, to make the best choice, you will need to look at the software requirements because most graphics cards will function, and not all programs demand a lot of graphics RAM.

Disadvantages of CAD

It's typically challenging to identify disadvantages with CAD because it has shown to be a problem solver in many professional fields. But there are restrictions:

1. Licensing: Expensive tools are usually only available through subscription-based or one-time purchases. If they are being used for educational purposes, that's the key exception.

2. Time: Using CAD or CAM requires time. A certain amount of overhead, such as training time, is required to properly create and carry out designs.

3. Hardware: To function at their best, CAD and CAM tools frequently need strong (and expensive) hardware.

CAD Drawing Examples

There is the following example of CAD drawings:

1. House Plan - Contemporary

2. Wiring Diagram

3. Fluid Power Example

4. Piping Instrument Diagram

5. Power Plant Diagram

6. Office Electrical Plan

7. Residential Landscape

8. Deck Design 2

The AutoCAD Era

Over the past few decades, one of the more traditional primary tools in CAD has changed. This is called AutoCAD.

In all drafting, engineering, and design fields, from jointers and rafters in carpentry to the cutting of plastics or other materials for client component runs, AutoCAD is very well-liked. Since its introduction in 1982, both large and small firms have incorporated AutoCAD and its features into their operational procedures.

Its ease of use is one of the primary justifications for use. In many instances, integrating into conventional bare-metal setups is relatively simple. AutoCAD is frequently mentioned by teachers and students as being simple to learn and a very useful talent for persons in a variety of industrial vocations and roles.

However, the cost structure of AutoCAD is the key factor driving individuals to search for alternatives. Many products, such as TinkerCAD and FreeCAD, provide some capability for users who value their money, but in general, users are sensitive to spending more for vendor license.

Experts point out that membership prices often run in the hundreds of dollars, which won't break the bank for a larger organization, and that the software itself was not that expensive compared to the cost of the initial hardware required to run AutoCAD.

However, small company customers may find it difficult to afford AutoCAD's costs. Experts also point out that, on average, businesses save far more money using AutoCAD techniques than they do with licensing.

Modern Computer-Aided Design Tools

Tools multiplied as the computer-aided design developed. Business customers now have a wide range of vendor-specific tools to pick from in addition to AutoCAD. Modern CNC electronic routers or woodworking machines, for instance, have made it possible for woodworking firms to become more specialized and capable, from cabinet manufacturers to producers of specialized commercial goods. In order to plane and deal with wood in other ways in a very detailed manner, the CNC arm of a contemporary CNC machine is equipped with various drills and tools. Software layers that include some open source components are used to regulate the creation and application of designs.

CAD has shown to be a very useful component of contemporary manufacturing and industrial processes across the board.