Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager?

When you run the Device Manager, a screen shown in the example display below. Next to each gadget category, arrows are pointing to the right. No other devices or Unknown devices should be mentioned, and all categories should have Plus signs. However, if issues arise, you might be making one or more than one of the errors listed below.

How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager

Note: If you have a problem using the Device Manager, Windows may have corrupt files. To resolve this problem, it might be essential to conduct the Windows repair procedure using the Windows CD or DVD.

1) Exclamation mark or other devices

How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager

Under Other devices, if a gadget is marked with a yellow circle and an exclamation point, other hardware conflicts with it. It could also mean that the device's drivers must be incorrectly installed.

An error code is displayed when you double-click and open the problematic device.

A list of Device Manager error codes is provided below, along with suggestions for how to fix each one. To find your problem code, scroll through the entire list.

View the trouble codes in the Device Manager

Follow the instructions below to view any device's status or error code.

  1. Start the Device Manager program.
  2. Double-click the apparatus, and in the apparatus, you will get options to select code.

What to do with devices such as exclamation points or others?

You may remove any devices marked with an exclamation point and any Other devices from Device Manager by selecting them and hitting the delete key on the keyboard. After uninstalling everyone, restart the machine to allow Windows to re-check the devices.

Windows cannot install the devices if the Device Manager does not change even after restarting the computer because it lacks the necessary driver support. Make use of the hardware's original installation DVD or download the most recent drivers for that particular device.

Select the equipment

Before looking for drivers or software, know the device's maker and model. On the website of the manufacturer, you can find the software or drivers for an internal hardware component of an OEM computer. They might also be on a system-supplied CD or DVD.

2) Red "x"

The device has been deleted or disabled, or Windows cannot find it.

How to handle red X

Double-click the device marked with a red x if you want to enable it. At the bottom of the General tab, click the Device usage drop-down box next to "Do not use this device (disabled)," then select "Use this device (enabled)."

If this isn't an option or it's already enabled, select the device in Device Manager and remove it using the delete key. Allow Windows to re-check the device after a restart of the computer.

Windows cannot install the devices if the Device Manager does not change even after restarting the computer because it lacks the necessary driver support. You must use the original installation disc that was included with the hardware or download the most recent drivers for that particular device.

3) Down arrow

When a little down arrow is seen next to a device in Windows Vista, and later, it means the device is disabled.

How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager

Use of the down arrow

Double-click the device, select the Driver tab and then press the Enable button to fix the problem. If prompted, restart the computer after it has been activated.

Hardware not present or unknown device

Hardware that's missing:

The computer does not identify the device if you cannot install it and do not see it listed under "Other devices" in Device Manager. Windows should list the device under Other or Unknown devices even if it lacks the necessary driver support.

Try shutting down the computer, unplugging and replugging the hardware, and restarting it. If Windows can still not recognize the device, it is either defective or incompatible with your version of Windows.

4) Unknown device

Devices recognized but displayed as Unknown devices are those for which Windows lacks the necessary driver support.

When you haven't installed anything recently and are unsure of what the computer's unknown device might be, it can be challenging to identify it.

How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager

You can have more than one Unknown device in the machine if you recently performed several Windows reinstallations. The majority, if not all, Unknown devices should be resolved by installing the computer's chipset drivers from a CD or Download. Additionally, following the setup instructions on your driver CD might fix many issues with Unknown devices.

Run the setup or download the drivers from the supplied CD if you're trying to install a new device on your computer. If you don't have a driver's disc, you can download the drivers from the manufacturer's website.

How to identify an unknown PCI card

How to identify an unidentified PCI card is explained on this page. The instructions below should be followed if you are using Microsoft Windows and have an In Device Manager; choose "Unknown device" or "Unknown PCI device."

users of Microsoft Windows

Users of Microsoft Windows can check the registry to find out who made it or what kind of PCI device was installed in their machine. Follow the procedures below to accomplish this. Skip to the next section if you want to keep the registry and would rather use a different tool.

Through the System Information

  1. Launch the MSINFO32 (Windows System Information) utility.
  2. To extend the computer's available components, click Components.
  3. Select Problem Devices, then look for the PnP ID of the device you want to pinpoint.

hardware remedy

The next best option is to inspect the card if the software cannot identify the PCI card. The card's maker and model number are typically printed there. Look for an alternative identifier on the card, for example, an FCC identification number, if neither the model nor the manufacturer is mentioned. Visit our FCC definition page for more details regarding FCC numbers.

How to Fix Corrupt Drivers on Windows

Your PC may crash if your Windows drivers are corrupt. Here are a few solutions to address them before the subsequent crash occurs.

Are you having problems with connectivity, audio, blue screens, or even DRIVER CORRUPTED EXPOOL errors? Outdated, damaged, missing, or corrupt Windows drivers can cause various computer issues. Your drivers most likely have one or more faulty files.

How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager

Unfortunately, this may also result in the device it controls losing functionality or crashing. Therefore, to keep your computer from breaking down, it's essential to fix a faulty driver as soon as you see it. Here are a few techniques for Windows corrupt driver repair.

This means that the system is attempting to access invalid memory at an abnormally high process IRQL and that the driver has become incompatible with the operating system.

The following are some potential solutions to the DRIVER CORRUPTED EXPOOL Error.

EXPOOL error due to corrupted driver

1. System Restore

To return your PC to a previously established stable condition, use System Restore.

2. Run Blue Screen Troubleshooter

Run the Troubleshooter for the Blue Screen of Death. The built-in Troubleshooter automatically resolves BSODs.

3. Uninstall Faulty Drivers

To begin, concurrently press the WINKEY + R keys to enter the Run box, then type devmgmt. msc and hit/click Enter.

This starts with the Device Manager. If any of your computer's drivers are broken, the driver's icon will be highlighted in yellow.

Uninstall the drivers with yellow exclamation points by right-clicking on them.

After removing the driver, restart your computer; the driver will be reinstalled.

4. Reset Windows

You can use Windows 10's Reset This PC function.

You might also use Microsoft's Refresh Windows Tool.

5. How to Check If Bios Is Corrupted

This procedure is not advised since the BIOS is a delicate computer area, and you should avoid it if you are unfamiliar with it.

If you choose this option, you should use extreme caution while modifying the BIOS or anything else.

Suppose you opt to proceed with the BIOS upgrade. You may do this by pressing the WINKEY + R keys simultaneously, which will bring up the Run box.

Enter the command msinfo32. This command will display the System Information window. At the bottom, you'll notice a search area; type BIOS Version into it and hit Enter.

The version and developer of the BIOS installed on your machine will then be shown.

Afterward, go to the manufacturer's website and download your computer's most recent version of the BIOS.

Keep your laptop plugged in until the BIOS update has been fully completed.

DBL-Click on the downloaded file to install the updated BIOS version. Once finished, restart your computer for the modifications to take effect.

6. Update Device Drivers

Ensure that the most recent device drivers are loaded on your computer.