Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit

Who invented the Internet?

Introduction of the Internet:

The Internet is the foremost important tool and useful resource for any person. It connects millions of millions of computers, smartphones, web pages, servers, etc. It connects with our daily life scenarios and actions. Whatever you think in this digital era, is just by the Internet. The use of the Internet makes our life easy, fast, and simple. There are plenty of Internet examples that make our daily life simple and fast.

Nowadays, we can send emails, photos, videos, documents, and messages on the Internet with a single click. Internet connects private as well as public purposes. By the use of this, get all worldwide information. No anywhere needs to go. All electronics systems, computers are operated by the use of the Internet. So we can say that this DIGITAL world correlates with the Internet. If the Internet does not exist, then DIGITAL has no meaning. There are plenty of examples (almost all) that use the Internet to send and receive information online due to the Internet.

The Internet that we know and use is not created and invented by a single person. There are so many programmers, scientists, engineers, etc., who developed internet new features and technology. When networking technology was first developed, several scientists and engineers were doing research together to create the ARPANET. Many scientists and engineers contributed to developing the initial part of the Internet, some of them are discussed below:

  1. Paul Baran (1926-2011): He was one of the main scientists who contributed to the ARPA research. In 1959, he joined an American think tank. He also involved the US air force in developing new technology related to the Internet; after that, Baran proposed a communication network with no central command point.
  2. Lawrence Roberts (1937-2018): He was the chief scientist at ARPA research work. He had the responsibility to develop computer networks. He began to work on the creation of the distributed network.
  3. Leonard Kleinrock (1934- ): He had contributed to the creation of the distributed network.
  4. Donald Davies (1924- 2000): At the same time, this scientist developed similar technology at the National Physical laboratory. He participated very much along with Lawrence Roberts to work and develop in the field of the ARPA research work.
  5. Bob Kahn (1938- ): Bob Kahn was an American computer scientist who developed TCP/IP, the set of communication protocols that communicate with every network. File Transfer (FTP) is the most important protocol used for file transfer over the network. It uses TCP/IP for communication, and FTP works TCP port 21. It works on the principle of the client-server architecture model. The client sends requests to the server for that particular file.
  6. Jon Postel (1943- 98): Jon Postel discovered DNS (Domain name System), the Internet's phone book. Domain Name Systems are the most important thing in the computer network fields.

We all depend on the Internet worldwide and want to share data and information. "Domain Name System" (DNS) or we can say that "Domain Name Server" plays an important role in sending data and information through the Internet. DNS is a protocol that specifies how computers exchange data on the Internet. It works on the principle of the TCP/IP protocol suite. Computers and other network devices on the Internet use IP addresses to send and route requests, so DNS manages a massive database that maps domain names into IP addresses. It uses the UDP protocol for transport layer communication.

  • Tim Berners-Lee (1955- ): WWW (World Wide Web) is the most important tool to develop the Internet. It is the collection of the websites or web pages stored in web servers and connected to the local computers through the Internet. HTML is the basic source for the creation of web pages. Tim Berners-Lee developed these www features.       

The initial creation of the internet

In 1960, the internet first started being developed in California by many scientists and engineers. This was the first meeting in the phase of the development internet, which was held by the NWG (Network Working Group) at the SRI (Stanford Research Institute). These meetings and developed by several scientists such as Elmer Shapiro, Ron Stoughton, Steve Crocker, Steve Carr, and Jeff Rulifson. These are all scientists and engineers trying to develop the internet. They faced many challenges during the invention of the first starting phase of the internet, so they discussed how to resolve problems during the inventions of the internet.

Open for the general public

General persons have learned and knew the features of the internet on July 3, 1969 at (the University Of California, Los Angeles). The main aim was to interact with the internet for all people, how can learn and use the internet easily in the whole world.

First network Equipment

On August 29, 1969, the first time IMP (Interface Message Processor) was the first piece of the network equipment and network switch. These all types of equipment and switch were delivered to “UCLA”.

The first message and network crash

A computer science professor Leonard Kleinrock was sent the first internet message from the laboratory of “UCLA” on October 29, 1969. This was the initial internet backbone. The LO was the first message sent out, and it was an attempt by Charley S. Kline to log onto the SRI computer at UCLA. However, the whole message could not be completed due to the SRI system crashing.

Who invented the Internet

The First time email use and development

Email is the foremost necessary to communicate with each person in modern times. Ray Tomlinson invented the first time email system in 1971. He also developed @ symbol for sending or creating an email. The email was the first communication message delivered across a network to the users. This is the new phase of the invention of the internet.

The development of the TCP/IP

There are some rules and procedures to communicate between client and server to make communication most efficient among devices.

So we can define as- Protocols as the set of rules and regulations that exchange information in an easy, reliable, and secure way among devices. Think of our entire world scenario. There are must some rules and regulations to communicate way easily. Without a protocol, computers and other devices would not know how to send data to each other.TCP/IP protocol is used for remote connections since a computer's IP is unique, so it is used to identify and access remotely to a particular computer.

TCP (Transport Control Protocol) is the most popular network protocol globally and was designed by Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn in 1973. They help more and more in the development of the internet

First commercial network

 Telnet is the first internet service provider founded in 1974 as a version of the ARPANET (Internet Service Provider).Generally, the main task of the internet is to provide services to users. If a user wants to run different application programs remotely, Telnet provides a connection to the remote.

 Computer in such a way that a local terminal appears on the remote side. Telnet and FTP both are application layer protocols. Both are also connection-oriented protocols as they create a connection between the remote host and server. 

FTP is used to transfer the files from one system to the other, and TELNET is used for remote login for any computer system.

The Modem is introduced

Today, there are so many digital Modem has been developed. For the first time, 80- Dale Hetherington and Denis Hayes developed the 103A type of Modem. The main function of the Modem is to connect to the internet. And by using the internet, we can communicate all over the world easily. It is important for every computer and internet user So that we connect the all over the world.

DNS (Domain Name System) is introduced

 “Jon Pastel” and “Paul Mockapetris" is the DNS founder. They invented the DNS system in 1984.We all depend on the full internet worldwide and want to share data and information. "Domain Name System" (DNS) or we can say that "Domain Name Server" plays an important role in sending data and information through the internet.

DNS is a protocol that how computers exchange data on the internet. It works on the principle of the TCP/IP protocol suite.

Computers and other network devices on the internet use IP addresses to send and route requests, so DNS manages a massive database that maps domain names into IP addresses. It uses the UDP protocol for transport layer communication.