Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

Computer Ports | Computer Fundamentals

What is a Port?

A port is a physical connection on a computer or another electronic device that allows users to connect a device. There are several types of ports available on personal computers that allow computers to access external devices such as printers, modems, mice, and other peripheral devices. Generally, all personal computers contain a parallel port for connecting a printer or other peripheral devices and a serial RS-422 or RS-232C port for connecting a modem or mouse.

What is a port in computer?

A port is also used to move a program to another operating system that has been written for particular operating systems. For instance, move a program to the Linux operating system that is written for Microsoft Windows.

Types of Computer Port

  • Serial port (DB9)
  • USB port
  • VGA port
  • Gamepad / Joystick port
  • HDMI port
  • AT port (old keyboard port)
  • Display Port
  • DVI port
  • LPT port (printer port)
  • Modem or phone port (RJ-11)
  • PS/2 port (keyboard port and mouse port)
  • Firewire port (IEEE-1394)
  • LAN or network port (RJ-45)

Serial port: On the computer, a serial port is used to transmit or receive data one bit at a time. It is one of the oldest types of an asynchronous port that is commonly found on IBM compatible computers as communications ports. Usually, it was used to connect printers and external modems to a PC. It uses a 25-pin (DB-25) connector or a nine-pin (DE-9) connector.

Serial port:

The RS-232 is a serial port standard that uses 25 pins. It is used to transmit serial communication between devices, which are usually known as data terminal equipment (DTE) and data communications equipment (DCE).

Use of serial port

There are several hardware components that can be used with the serial port; such are as follows:

  • Modem: It is a commonly used device for serial ports and is widely used with older computers. However, it was popular as its use is very easy. 
  • Mouse: It is also a widely used device for serial ports. It is mainly used with computers that have no specialty mice and PS/2 or USB ports.
  • Printer: It is not a widely used device for serial ports. Mainly, it was used with older plotters and printers.
  • Network: The serial port is most widely used in the network that enables two computers to connect with each other. Also, the large files can be sent transferred between the two networks through a serial port.

USB port: A USB stands for the universal serial bus that is a standard cable connection interface that allows a computer to communicate with peripheral and other devices. USB ports allow digital transfer data over USB cables and connect the USB devices together, and they also have the ability to supply electric power to certain devices, such as tablets, smartphones, including charging their batteries.

In January 1996, the first version 1.0 of USB was released, which was quickly followed by Microsoft, Intel, Compaq, and other companies. Its length is from around 3 feet to a slight over 16-feet. The 16 feet 5 inches is the maximum length of a USB port for high-speed devices and 9 feet 10 inches for low-speed devices. Also, by using USB hubs, you can extend the distance between the two connected devices by connecting two USB cables. Furthermore, there are several types of USB devices, such as a keyboard, digital camera, external drive, or other MP3 players, microphone, mouse, keypad, and more.

VGA port: VGA stands for Video Graphics Array that is a popular display standard. In 1987, it was developed and introduced by IBM. It is a three-row 15-pin DE-15 connector, which offers 640 x 480 resolution color display screens with a rate of 60 Hz and 16 colors displayed in one go. Many video cards, computer monitors, laptop computers, projectors, and HD television sets included a 15-pin VGA connector. Sometimes, a mini-VGA port was used on small devices like a laptop in the place of the full-sized VGA connector. Although VGA is still in use, the newer interfaces like HDMI and DVI are replacing it rapidly.

VGA port

Gamepad / Joystick port: It is a 15-pin connector port that is also known as Analog-to-digital port, game port, joystick port, or game control adapter. In 1981, it was found on IBM computers. It is mainly found on the backside of the computer. It is managed by the SIO that provides users the option to connect joysticks, steering wheels, gamepads, or other devices to offer additional functionality to the computer.

Gamepad / Joystick port

The production of game ports was decreased with the advent of a universal serial bus. Hence, it has been discontinued in most laptops and personal computers. It never requires mapped memory or interrupt requests and uses only one input/output base address. It can be classified into two categories; single and dual port. A single port supports only two-axis game controllers and does not support joystick2 functions in case of joysticks. The dual-port is capable of supporting both functionalities joystick1 and joystick2.

A game port provides a built-in control panel for the purpose, which has the ability to test the port in Windows-based systems. It also has a limitation that it can only support up to four buttons on any controller. Also, the CPU has to check the game port continuously to detect any pressing of buttons or joystick movement, because it is not interrupt-driven.

HDMI port: It stands for High Definition Multimedia Interface, which is a connector and cable that is found on around all modern pieces of home theater gear. It can transmit high-bandwidth and high-quality streams of audio and video between devices. The cable would be useless without these ports and the attached electronics.

HDMI port

The devices such as DVD player or Blu-ray player, HDTV, Projector, use the HDMI technology. The multiple companies, including Sony, Philips, Toshiba, and Hitachi, jointly developed the HDMI cable. The three-composite audio/video cables can be replaced by a single HDMI cable, which makes it easier to transmit audio and video signals by offering connectivity between two devices.

Furthermore, this cable is capable of transmitting up to 8-channels of digital audio signals, standard, enhanced, and high-definition video signals. The length of the HDMI cable can run from one foot up to 50 feet. But it may result in signal degradation or loss. Therefore, it is not recommended that users buy more than 25 feet. The HDMI ports are mainly found on the motherboard or video card on the backside of the computer. It is not that all computers have HDMI ports; your computers may use VGA, DVI, or Display Port technology.

AT port: It is the older keyboard port used to connect AT keyboard. IBM introduced the AT keyboard in 1986, which is also known as the Model F keyboard. Its initial version contained 84 keys; then, it was enhanced and replaced by the 101-key keyboard. The AT keyboard does not have the additional three Microsoft Windows keys (founded on many IBM compatible keyboards), unlike modern keyboards.

Display Port: It is a digital audio and video interface that is used to connect a video source to a display device. For instance, a computer monitor may be connected to the PC with the help of DisplayPort. A consortium of PC and chip manufacturers developed the DisplayPort and standardized by the VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association). It has two types of connection; standard and smaller Mini DisplayPort. Both of the connection types are capable of transmitting identical signals, despite the difference in size.

DVI port: It is a video display interface, stands for Digital Video Interface. Digital Display Working Group created it, and it was developed as an industry standard to transmit video content to display devices at high resolutions (2560 x 1600). Computer monitors and projectors are the common devices that utilize the DVI connection. Most of the DVI ports are capable of supporting analog and digital displays.

DVI port

The DVI connection works to converts the digital signal to an analog signal for analog display, and no conversion is necessary for digital display. Although HDMI cable is more appropriate to use with TVs, some televisions also used DVI. But it is used with TVs in fewer numbers as some DVI cables are only able to transmit audio signals. It supports three types of signals, such as DVI-A (analog only), DVI-D (digital only), and DVI-I (integrated, for both analog and digital). The digital video interface can be used for high-resolution displays like HDTV and UXGA. DVI ports may found on video cards in a computer, including high-end televisions.

LPT port: It stands for a line printer terminal, which is the usual designation for a parallel port connection to a printer on IBM compatible computers. It is commonly used by IBM compatible computers as LPT1, LPT2, or LPT3. Most computers come with an LPT1 connection, but you can add another LPT port by adding a parallel port adapter card to your computer.

LPT port

Modem port (RJ-11): It is a telephone interface that is widely known as a phone connector, modem port, phone line or phone jack. It uses a modular jack and a cable of twisted wire pairs with four or six contacts. In the US, it is also used as a connection for telephone and Modem connectors. It is commonly used to connect telephones to wall plates and plug the handset into the telephone.

Modem port

PS/2 port: It is also known as a keyboard or mouse port and introduced by the IBM computer in 1987. It is developed by IBM for connecting a mouse or keyboard to IBM computers. Sometimes it is still found on all IBM computers, and it is a mini-DIN plug containing just six pins. It had a bidirectional 8-bit port and included improved feature graphics, a 3.5-inch diskette drive. Additionally, it also had a proprietary bus to prevent the clone maker's competition.

PS/2 port

Firewire port: It is also known as IEEE 1394 that is a digital bus with a bandwidth of 400-800 Mbps and more. In 1995, it was first developed by Apple. It is a standard connection for some printers and scanners, digital video cameras, external hard drives, and other different types of electronic devices.

Firewire port

When a device is plugged in, the operating system automatically finds the device and asks to install a driver if needed, as it supports plug-and-play. Firewire is supported by all types of Windows from Windows 98 to Windows version 10, including Linux, Mac OS 8.6, and other most operating systems. Additionally, Firewire is very similar to USB, including some similar
 features. Like USB, it has various devices such as cameras and removable drives.

LAN or network port: It is an 8-pin connection, used for an Ethernet network, which is also known as Ethernet port, the network adapter, the network jack or the RJ45 jack (Registered Jack-45). It is mainly connected to the end of Cat 5 cable that is connected between a network device like a network router and a computer network card. Furthermore, it is a standardized networking interface, which contains eight separate wires as each RJ45 connector has eight pins.

LAN or network port

What is the Port number?

A port number is the logical address of each application that communicates over a network or the Internet. A port number is a 16-bit integer that is put in the header appended to a message unit for the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). It is able to uniquely identify a network-based application on a computer. For allocating each application/program, a 16-bit integer port number is assigned by the operating system or set as a default for some popular applications by the user.

For instance, in an incoming message or packet, the IP address is used to identify the destination computer/node while the port number further recognizes the destination application or program on that computer. Similarly, in the packet header, all outgoing network packets have application port numbers to enable the receiver to separate the specific application. Mainly, port numbers are used in transmission control protocol and user datagram protocol-based networks.

What is port forwarding?

A technique that allows a gateway or similar device to transmits all the incoming traffic from the particular port to the same port on any internal network node is known as port forwarding or tunneling. An external source network can be connected to an internal source port or node with the help of port forwarding. Mainly, it is used to optimize network speed, separate network traffic, and assign the network path permanently for a particular protocol or network service. Commonly, it uses well-known port numbers, in which services are assigned permanently.

Typically, it is implemented at a gateway router to automate the process of identifying and forwarding network packets to a destination port. For example, in the packet header, a router accepts a packet with a port number and an IP address. If the router is configured with port forwarding, automatically it will transfer the packet to the destination node, and if not configured, before transmitting the packet, it will first identify the port.

What is a port knocking?

Port knocking is an authentication technique that is used by network administrators to improve the security of a webserver. It works with the help of a firewall, and this technique helps to identify valid users and block unauthorized users. On the firewall, these ports will be closed by default. The Port knocking technique is implemented by a pre-defined sequence. It includes an advantage that ports, which have protected by port knocking, will be shown unavailable for a usual port scan. It uses a daemon that helps to monitor for the correct connection request sequence of the firewall's log files.

What is Port triggering?

Port triggering is a process in which outbound traffic sends inbound traffic on predetermined ports to specific incoming ports. It is a technique that opens the internal port for the duration of the session and when it is needed. It is more secure as compared to port forwarding as incoming ports are open only when a program is active with the help of a trigger port; they are not open all the time.

The port triggering has an advantage that behind a NAT-enabled router, it allows computers to offer services that would normally need a static host. It also has a disadvantage that it enables only one client to use a particular service on the network, which occupies a particular port.