Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is Video Card?

It is a component in the personal computer that is used to connect with the motherboard in the CPU. It is also called the graphic card or video control; as the name suggests, the video card's responsibility is to evaluate, maintain, and control the screen's display quality. It determines the screen's appearance and manages the colors and pixels of the display. Even the content still visible to you is because of the video card. It acts as an intermediate device that can increase the efficiency of the video.

What is Video Card

The graphic card or the video card is attached to the motherboard. It is located inside the CPU. It is the hardware equipment that performs the processing of graphics. The Central Processing Unit manages most of the functions related to the processing. When the user works on the software that requires high graphical content, the user prefers to use video cards instead of the integrated card as they have more processing power and requires video ram.

It increases efficiency and enables them to run the application more smoothly. It can increase the speed of both 2 and 3-dimensional visual rendering. The increased performance of 2D can benefit the user when using applications such as video players, photo editors, or the web browser. At the same time, the 3D accelerations are quite useful when using complex software such as video games, graphic designing, and CAD design software.

Most of the graphic cards purchased from the market support various graphic libraries such as DirectX and OpenGL. These graphic libraries allow the programmer to manage and configure the graphics as they provide certain commands that can be directly used in the program to manipulate the visuals. The commands can be used to implement casting light or can be used to perform morphing on the polygons. They can be used to move or rotate the object or create its shadow. It eases the task of graphic development of the graphic designer or developer and can be used to simplify the process of building high graphic applications. It is necessary to have the support of a video card for executing certain applications on your personal computer.

A graphic card consists of the following parts:

  • GPU
  • DVI
  • Video-BIOS
  • Video-memory

The previously used graphic cards were not very effective in processing the graphics. The earlier video cards could only send the processed output from the processor and display that on the screen. Most of the content that was produced was in textual format. Therefore, it seemed to work perfectly. Because of the output, the early OS did not require any additional colors or any high-definition graphics. But the video cards that we use nowadays send the processed output and act as co-processors, which means they further process the signals sent from the processor to them. Thus, increasing the quality of the out furthermore. They even can evaluate the quality of the output.

Factual Statement about the Graphic Cards

There is a limit to the video cards that can be attached to your system's graphics card. Not all video cards are supported by a motherboard, which makes it necessary to check the motherboard in your CPU and ensure that it supports the particular graphic card before purchasing it.

Nowadays, various personal computers in the market have video cards already attached to the system's motherboard; they are GPUs integrated into the motherboard itself. These systems do not need additional graphics cards. This may be responsible for the comparatively low picture quality, but this also significantly reduces system building costs. They cost very less than those with additional ports for graphic cards.

Almost all the motherboards with embedded video cards also have the BIOS; using the BIOS, the user can always disable the chip through which the graphic card can be installed in the system to the expansion slot in the CPU. This is suitable for the users requiring the systems to perform basic tasks and not for professional gaming or high graphic content creation.

Checking whether the system has a Video Card

In the Windows OS, the user can check whether the system is connected to a video card; it is the simplest method to check what video cards are installed. The entire list of installed video cards is provided under the Display adapters section. The user can also use certain tools that tell the graphic card of your systems; one such tool is Speccy.

It is available free of cost and provides additional information about the user's computer. This additional information can be about the interface of the bus architecture, space available in the memory, device ID, current device state such as its temperature, its manufacturer, model, and some extra information about the system's graphic card.

One more method to check whether the video card is installed in the system is by checking it manually. The user can always just open the case of the CPU or the system and can see whether the graphic card is installed on the personal computer. If the user ever wants to replace or even remove the existing video card, it is necessary to open the system. But if the user only wants some information about the video card, the user should prefer the first method that involves using the software instead of opening the computer case.

Components of Video Cards

What is Video Card

A video card is a piece of hardware equipment consisting of various smaller parts with their own specified roles. Some of the necessary components include:

1. GPU (Graphics Processing Unit)

It is the most necessary component in the graphic card, and it forms the very core of the video card. It is responsible for performing all the computations required to determine the graphic of the content. When performing all the calculations, it generates a lot of heat that may result in the wear and tear of the device, so to prevent this from happening, the GPU is located near the fan. In some graphic cards, the processors in the graphical processing unit are also used to perform advanced tasks such as smoothing the graphics of the 3-dimensional images.

2. Memory

Though there is memory in the system, additional memory is also provided in the graphic card. The additional memory is used to store the data required by the card frequently so that it can be used easily. As already discussed above, the work of the GPU is to handle the numerical computations that produce the graphic content that will be represented on the screen. All the images and content are stored in the graphic card's memory until fully completed. GPU takes the textures from the card's memory that can be easily further sent to the RAM once the GPU has completed all the computations. From the RAM, the images are forwarded to the RAMDAC that finally accepts the images and displays them on the monitor or the screen of your system. It is the job of the RAMDAC to convert the graphical content into analog signals. These signals are then transmitted to the monitor using a display cable. The space available in the Graphic card memory is comparatively less than the memory available in the systems, but their performance and speed are much higher.

3. Internal Interface

The interface establishes the connection between the motherboard and the video card. It plays a crucial role in the graphic card as it serves as a bridge between the computer and the video card. In the earlier versions of the graphic card, the connection between the graphic card and the motherboard was established by the AGP interface (Accelerated Graphics Port Interface). Still, nowadays, the connection is made using the PCI Express 2.0 X 16 interface. This has significantly increased the graphic card's performance as the data transmission is faster when using them. It is necessary to have PCI slots in the system if the user wants to connect the graphic card to the graphic card; it will not be possible to use graphic cards without it.


It forms the external interface of the video card. It consists of various ports, and their primary function is to provide a spot for connections. They can be DVI, HDMI, or VGA ports. It depends on the port and which component of the system will be attached using the port. DVI stands for Digital Video Interface, and the HDMI is High-Definition Multimedia Interface. These two ports are mostly used in a graphic card that provides high-end graphic cards. The low-end graphic cards do not have HDMI ports; instead, they have VGA ports. There are some more components available in the graphic cards. They perform minor functions. These components include capacitors, diodes, and resistors.

Different Types of Graphic Cards

The user can attach the additional graphics card to the system to enhance the visual aspects of the system. It allows users to significantly boost the performance of video games. Various manufacturers produce these graphic cards, and numerous models of video cards are available on the market. It is necessary to evaluate the needs of the user and, according to the need, determine the best-suited graphic card for the system.

Some of the Video cards available are:

On-Board: These were specially built for a budget-friendly system, and this was done to ensure that the user does not require any additional expensive video cards in the system. They can be used for playing high graphics games or executing applications that require high-quality graphics. They are used in decoding the higher quality videos, but there is a limitation to their functioning as they are not much powerful. They are designed with a budget constraint, so if the user wants a video card that can even increase the quality furthermore, they can always replace the pre-installed graphic card with an add-on video card. All they need to do is disable the onboard video card from the computer's BIOS and then install the add-on video card.

PCI Express: Earlier, most video cards used the AGP interface, but when PCI Express was introduced, the PCI Express video card became the standard video card in 2009 due to its high efficiency and performance. NVIDIA and ATI are the only two major manufacturers of the PCI Express video cards. The latest version is PCI Express 3.0, and there are three architectures of the PCI Express video cards.

AGP: They were extensively used in the mid-2000s; the AGP interface was the standard interface of the video card before the PCI Express video cards. Nowadays, they are not used much as they are not effective. Most of the new systems that are manufactured no more have AGP ports in them which is one more reason for their less use. The last video card that was developed by ATI in 2008 was the Radeon HD 4000 series, and since then, there has been no continuation.

External Graphic Cards: Nowadays, the graphic cards are embedded in the computer case, so there was no need to provide additional space for the add-on video cards on the laptops. So, to provide the user with an option to extend the ability of the video cards, the graphic card manufacturers manufactured the external graphic cards.

Legacy Graphic Cards: Certain graphic cards were popular before but are now not used anymore. This was due to the upgrade of the operating systems. Some of the video cards, such as PCI and ISA graphics, are no more compatible with the latest versions of Windows.

History of Graphic Cards

Earlier, the video cards were provided with printer ports to be directly connected with the video cards; this allowed the user to take high-quality printouts as before, the printers could only print the content on a less resolution green screen.

It was 1987 when IBM released a new standard for the video cards that were the VGA graphic cards that provided up to 720X400 resolutions. It increased the color palette as it provided support for 256 colors. The major difference between the previous video card models and the VGA graphic card is that they transmitted analog signals and modern monitors use digital signals.

The digital signals have a strict on/off nature, and this increases the functionality by changing the signals and creating numerous types of combinations. After this, all the manufacturers provided various solutions to the digital issues by providing all the functionality of the analog adapters.

The manufacturers then produced the SGA graphic cards.

Though the base idea was the VGA graphic cards only, they improved the presentation quality by increasing the depth of the colors, and the resolutions could be implemented to the content in many ways. The resolution was increased to 1280X1024, and the color palette was also significantly increased. The new graphic cards supported almost 16.8 million colors.

It is necessary for the manufacturers of video cards to follow the standards decided by the industry. This allows the user to select from various graphics cards available in the market. If not so, then there will only be limited options; the user would only be able to select the graphic cards that could be attached to their system. But now, the user only needs to check the VGA specifications and choose the graphic card with the right color palette and the resolutions that fit the user's budget.

In 2004, Geforce 6 series 6600 and 6800 were released by NVIDIA. This video card became very popular among the overclockers. They are the programs that use the application called Riva turner. SLI provided support for using multiple video cards and the PureVideo technology; implementing these two increased video qualities. AMD launched the Radeon HD 5970 and overtook ATI in 2009.

Functions Performed by a Video Card

The monitors can present millions of colors. On average, the system's display simultaneously uses millions of colors, and they can also form an even more complex color by mixing the shades of different colors. Though most of the processing is done by the system's central processing unit, before displaying the graphical content on the display screens, the content is first passed through the graphic card. The video card is responsible for improvising the quality of the graphical content. It acts as the middleman that processes the content further and increases the pixel quality of the video and images.


The process starts with initiation from the device's CPU, and it sends a request to the graphic card stating that the CPU requires a card to represent something on display. Once it does, it depends on the graphic card to determine how to represent the content and define the instructions to visualize it. The pixels are similar to the canvas, and the graphic card act as the artist. The earlier connected monitor to the CPU is now directly connected to the graphic card. The connection is established using VGA, S-Video, or DVI cables. The information from the graphic card is forwarded to the monitor, where the content is finally displayed.

The data transmitted to the video card from the CPU is in binary format, and the card must convert the binary data into 3-dimensional versions. To begin this process, it all starts with the basic wire frame. The data contains all the information about the image or video, including all its graphical aspects such as the resolutions, lighting effects, contrast, brightness, textures, and complex colors in the image or video. It is necessary to repeat this entire process at least 60 times a second so that the resulting content is optimum. If the process is not performed at this rate, the resulting display will be sluggish, and the image or video quality will be inconsistent.

Ports to Attach the Graphic Card

Many types of graphic cards have been launched in the past few years. Various models of the graphic card have a different structure, and they have different ports through which they are connected to the monitor. Some of the standardized video ports for the graphic card are as follows:

  • DVI
  • S-Video
  • VGA
  • HDMI

Let us discuss all these visual ports individually:.

  • DVI: It stands for Digital Video Interface. It was an interface that was used to display the video graphic content. The PC industry designed this port to transmit the graphic content with higher resolutions. The resolutions of the image or video can be up to 2560 X 1600. The data is transmitted from the card to the monitor.

    The DVI cables handle the data loss during transmission virtually and ensure that the data transmitted is in digital format and suitable to be directly used by the monitors. Some televisions were also provided with DVI ports. It was done as the DVI cable allows the user to transmit both the audio and the video simultaneously. Still, nowadays, HDMI cables are a popular choice as they also transmit both video and audio signals.
  • S-Video: This port is a standard port for analog video connection. The S in the S-Video stands for super. The visual data is transmitted in the form of electrical signals carried through wires; these electrical signals represent the original video sent from the processing unit to the display unit.

    This type of connection is available on video devices with a round connector interface and an electric cable. The connection was used in various VCRs, televisions, and video cameras. It was also used in some models of computers and DVDs.
  • VGA: It was a popular standard for the display ports. VGA stands for Video Graphics Array. The VGA was developed by IBM and was released in 1987. The connection is usually provided in monitors and projectors. It provided a 640 X 480 resolution color screen display. It provided support for a wide range of colors. The user can reduce the resolutions to 320 X 200 and display over 256 colors. The VGA connection was quite popular in earlier days but is no more in use today because of two main reasons:
  • A VGA cable was only able to transmit the video signals, the quality of video signals was also not very good because it only supported low resolutions.
  • The data in the VGA cable was transmitted in the form of analog signals while the monitors and other display units used digital signals
  • HDMI: HDMI ports are available in the device that can transmit both audio and visual simultaneously. It provides high-bandwidth audio-visual streams. They are quite popular because of the high-definition quality of the output. They are available in televisions, computers, DVDs etc.