Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is a router?

A router allows the user to connect multiple packet-switched networks or subnetworks. It ensures the delivery of the data packet to the IP addresses they are assigned. We can use the router to allow multiple systems to share the same network. They are mostly used to transfer the data among LAN and WAN.

What Is A Router

There are several routers, but most routers pass data between LAN and WAN. A LAN is a group of systems restricted where the system is distributed in a small area. Geographical constraints bound them. LAN is preferred for the personal use of the network. In comparison, as the name suggests, WAN widens the network's area. It is a comparatively large network of systems. We can connect LANs that are spread over different locations using WAN. Large organizations mostly use it.

Working of a Router

A router is somewhat similar to the traffic lights that control traffic flow. The systems can be considered vehicles that are assigned to different destinations. Each vehicle can choose its path to reach its final destination. Similarly, the traffic lights ensure that the vehicle reaches move toward the destination without any chaos. Similarly, a router's job is to maintain an effective flow of data packets without causing any disruption. 

To do so, the router has a list of all the possible paths taken by the data packets to reach the destination. The final destination of the data packet is provided in the header section of the packet. It is read by the router, which then uses it to determine the best-suited path to reach the desired location. Then the data packet is routed towards that particular path. This list is present in the form of an internal routing table.

Differentiate between A Router and A Modem

Usually, both the router and the modem are embedded in a single machine as they both are necessary to access the internet over multiple devices. But they both are quite different and have their role to perform in connecting various systems and the Internet.

The purpose of a router is to manage the flow of data packets between various networks. We can create the network with the help of using the router. It provides the pathway for transferring the data. In contrast, the function of the modem is to connect the network with the Internet.

The modem establishes the internet connection and converts the signal from the service provider into a digital signal. So that the connected device can understand it. It modulated the signal from the device to enable it to travel in the network and demodulate the signal coming from the network to the device. The role of the router is to control and direct the data flow within the network while the modem converts data into a format that is suitable for data transfer. A computer attached to a modem can use the Internet. At the same time, a router allows the computer to send the signal modulated by the modem to various devices that are present in the network. 

Let's discuss a real-life situation: For Person A, who have a router but no modem, then Person A will only be able to establish a network between various devices and can transfer the data using that network only. The person won't be able to access the Internet. While Person B, who has a modem, but no router, will be able to access the Internet. It will allow only a single device to access the Internet. To access the Internet by using multiple devices. And Person C, who has both modem and router, will be able to access the Internet and allow multiple devices.

What Is A Router

If you want to connect LAN and the Internet, a router needs to interact with the modem. This can be done using two methods:

  • Wireless router: A wireless router is connected with a physical cable. The modem and router are connected using an Ethernet cable. They are not established using LANs; instead, the connection is established using a wireless local area network (WLANs). It transfers the data by changing the binary data into radio signals, and then these radio waves are transmitted using an antenna. 
  • Wired router: The wired router is connected using an Ethernet cable to the modem. Then the devices participating in the network are connected using separate wires. The local area network is established here, and each network device is linked to the Internet. 

Types of Routers

They are different types of routers based on the function served by them. These are specialized routers that serve some specific purpose:

  • Core Router: This is used by large organizations, as they enable the user to move a very high volume of data packets through the network. IT is efficient as it interacts with the core of the network while avoiding external networks.
  • Edge Router: The core router is exclusively used for large networks while the edge counters are used for smaller networks. It is the opposite of the core counter as it lives at the very edge of the network. It interacts with both the core and the external network.
  • Virtual Router: It is software that can perform all the functions performed by any hardware router.

Features of Routers

  • A router is a component of the network layer that allows users to communicate with various devices in a network just by knowing the internet protocol address of the devices.
  • The routers are connected to the devices using fast-Ethernet cables that provide better connectivity and high internet speed.
  • The user can even configure the ports by using the requirement as needed by the network.
  • They can be used to control the data traffic in the network, and they send the message only to the desired destination.
  • They are essential for establishing large networks; they can be arranged so that the sub-networks are also intact networks.
  • The router can create multiple paths between a single source and destination. Only one is the best route, while the rest are classified as alternatives routes.
  • The routers 
  • Using routers enables the users to establish a single connection by combining several local and wide area networks.
  • It ensures that there is no unnecessary interference in the network and there is no redundant transfer of data. The data can be protected by transferring as it can be encapsulated, preventing data loss.
  • It ensures there is no conflict while transferring information to avoid such issues. They are assigned as masters and slaves.

Application of Routers

The routers play a crucial role in establishing computer networks. Some of the applications of routers are:

  • Using routers, we can even connect hardware devices using remote networks. 
  • The transmission rate of data packets is relatively fast when routers are used. The links between routers and different components are established using a fast-Ethernet wire that is more efficient.
  • They can establish both wireless and wired networks.
  • The data can be transferred in e-mails, images, voice, and text messages.
  • you can transfer the data among various systems just if we know the IP address assigned to the system; we wish to share data.
  • Using routers, we can even limit access to the network. This can be done by allowing only a limited number of people who can access the data from the network. We can also restrict access to the level of information using the routers.
  • They can be used to ensure proper working of wide-area network communication; by implementing routers, the executive can share the software tools available among various systems all connected by implementing WAN architecture.
  • Routers can also be implemented along with the VPN in a wireless connection. This enables the user to set up the client-server model to request and share the information.

Routing Protocol

They are two types of Routing Protocol

  • Static Routing Protocol
  • Dynamic Routing Protocol

Static Protocols

They are static as assigning the path to the data packet is performed manually. This method provides more security to the network when determining the path from the source to the destination.

Advantages of using Static Routing Protocols:

  • Addresses can be determined by the administrator only.
  • There is no wastage of bandwidth between the various links.
  • There is no additional overhead on the router.

Disadvantages of using Static Routing Protocols:

  • The administrator needs to ensure that no router is left unconnected.
  • It requires a lot of time and effort to manually assign the addresses.
  • Even when a single link fails, the entire network goes down.
  • It is not suitable for small networks. 

Dynamic Protocols

In these protocols, adding information to the routing table is automated. Any modification in the network is sent as an update between various routers. These protocols are most used and highly important in establishing large networks.

Advantages of using Dynamic Protocols:

  • Administrators can easily perform configurations.
  • The data packets can be re-routed whenever a link goes down.
  • We can balance the load among various links.

Disadvantages of using Dynamic Protocols:

  • Since the modifications in the topology are sent to the routers, this consumes additional bandwidths.
  • It puts an additional load on the router CPU.
  • Internet Routing Protocol 
  • These protocols help the data packets to determine their path on the internet. 

Routing Information Protocols

There are two different versions of the Routing Information Protocol. This protocol is implemented for both local and wide-area networks. This protocol is also implemented in the Application layer of the OSI model.

RIPv1 uses information like IP destination and hop count to determine the data packets' path.

RIPv2 is a more advanced version of the RIPv1 as it shares the routing table on a multicast address.

Distance Vector Routing Protocol (DVR)

It shares the routing table of the router to every connected after every specific time, but this uses a lot of bandwidth, and the coverage rate is quite low.

We need to perform updation if there is in the routing table whenever the router becomes unavailable. 

Advantages of Distance Vector Routing Protocol:

  • Updates are performed at regular intervals. The network updates are broadcasted whenever generated.
  • It trusts the route provided by the neighbouring routers.

Disadvantages of Distance Vector Routing Protocol:

  • These protocols waste a lot of bandwidth, and the traffic is unusually high.

Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP)

CISCO developed it to overcome the limitations faced by the RIP. It uses metrics to load bandwidth, delay, and increase reliability. The data is shared between the routers and the system using IGP.

The protocols perform broadcast every one minute and a half. That’s why this method is implemented over large networks. The updation in this protocol is automated, and there are 255 hop counts possible, making it most suited for configuring large networks. It also enables the user to distribute the load equally or unequally across various paths.

Link State Routing Protocol

This protocol is quite efficient as it computes the path followed to reach the destination against the cost of the resources to reach there using the path. 

Working on Link State Routing Protocol

Three tables are created to implement the routing protocol. These are:

  • Neighbour Table: This table records all the information about the other routers that are directly linked to the router.
  • Topology Table: These tables handle the information about the network topology and the arrangement of the routers. It stores the information on paths from the source to the desired designation.
  • Routing Table: It stores the best routes from the source to the designation.

Advantages of Link State Routing Protocol:

  • There are separate tables to store the best routes and the alternative route for the same destination. 
  • This protocol has more information about the network between the routers and the system.
  • It prevents unnecessary bandwidth usage, as, after any modifications, the updates are triggered automatically.
  • It performs partial updates when there is any change in the network's topology, unlike other protocols where the entire routing table is changed even in the case of the slightest modifications.

Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)

This protocol allows the user to share the data between the gateway directly connected with the autonomous systems. It acts as a platform where different routers share information between various domains. This protocol constitutes the routers, addresses, the cost of travel, and the adjacent devices.

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)

This is a collection of multiple protocols. This single protocol provides routing protocols and link-state routing protocols. It is similar to IGRP as it also creates a composite metric to route the protocols. We can determine the best path to reach the destination using the composite metrics.

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

This protocol is a specially made IGP for internet protocol networks that are implemented using the shortest path approach. It constructs a database that records information about the structure of the network. It is a real-life implementation of the Dijkstra algorithm. It determines the network path each time after any change in the network topology. This protocol provides security to the network as it verifies the network, ensuring data security.

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

The function of this protocol is to notify the routing table of any change that occurs in the routes of the network. This protocol is not automated, and the change is to be manually reported by the user.

What is the purpose of implementing the Routing Protocols?

Routing protocols serve the following process during the transmission of data packets between the source and the destination:

  • It helps in determining the best route for transmitting the information.
  • It prevents loop routing of the data packet.
  • It is faster to converge the data using the protocols.
  • It reduces the data traffic on the network.
  • It can be implemented to configure large networks.
  • It adapts to the modifications made during the run-time.