Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is Data?

In our daily life, you can see everybody is dealing with information and data to analyze things. Data can be of different forms and can be converted to the required form. Data is everywhere. It is a collection of facts.
For example, we give information to the computer that can be understood by a person, and the information is converted into data in the computer because it treats the information as a character or as a symbol that has been encoded as binary sequence code, which is understandable by the computer.

What is Data

Data: The word data is derived from the Latin word "Datum," which means something that is given. Data has no specific meaning, but it has a purpose.

It is the raw form of information, which needs to be processed, which means it is an unorganized fact. Data is useless until it is organized, and it is of simple form only. For data, there is always a need for further analysis, and data does not depend on the information. It Relies on Data.

The data comes in the form of numbers, figures, statistics, etc.

Example for data: Test result of a student.

To get a clear picture of data, it is also important to have a clear picture of information.

Information: The word Information is derived from the Latin word "information," which means formation or conception. Information has a specific meaning, and it has a purpose.

Information is an organized one that has meaning and can be easily understood by anyone. It is a processed form of data, organized and structured. Information is dependent on data and does not rely on the information. It is in the form of words, thoughts, and ideas. It always follows an order.

Example for information: Average score of a class.

In the given explanation for information and data, we may come across many differences, which are also important while learning.

In our daily life, we also come across the word BIG DATA, which matters a lot to us. As we are discussing data, it is also important to discuss data.

Big Data

Big Data is an enormous amount of data that consist of different data which are of different formats that are accessible to the user. Data may be in different formats like PDF, Audio, Video, text, Images, etc.

One of the best examples of Big Data is social media because a large number of posts of messages, photos, and videos are done that have been stored in the databases of social media servers.

Data can provide a good amount of Intelligence which means boosting machines that are intelligent behavior in the machine. AI and ML are very much related, and both are about constructing intelligent computer programs.

Data analysts do research on data which is a kind of big data.

Data can alone run a machine because when we feed or store information or task in the form of data in a machine or a robot, it follows the instructions which are given in the form of information.

Big Data is Boosting Intelligent Behaviour in Machine, which means data can change or can make a revolution in building modern society that is by developing robots that can perform tasks.

Every machine has its own memory, which will perform a certain task with the data available to it. Data always requires a space to store, and that can be allocated.

Advantages of Big Data

  1. It reduces the cost of storing and increases processing speed.
  2. To examine the current market situation.
  3. enhances artificial Intelligence and machine learning by providing data.
  4. It used in voice recognition devices like Alexa, Siri, etc.

Disadvantages of Big Data

  1. It is unstructured or unordered.
  2. Mismatch of required data can occur while finding.
  3. Big data takes more time to analyze things.
  4. It can have privacy issues for companies storing a large amount of data.

These are the major advantages and disadvantages of Big Data.

Different types of Data

There are two main types of data:

  1. Qualitative Data
    • Nominal Data
    • Ordinal Data
  2. Quantitative Data
    • Discrete Data
    • Continuous Data

1) Qualitative Data

Qualitative Data is non-numerical data. It can be used to classify or categorize something. This type of data is not depicted in numerical terms. Example, music and art.

  • Nominal Data: It is used to label the variables without providing the numerical value for them. It is a subcategory of qualitative Data. Example, it defines the adjective, or the other example, is humans can have different eye color and hair color. Also, yes or no type of questions comes under the Nominal Data.
  • Ordinal Data: The Data which follows a natural order of a specific type is known as Ordinal Data. Example, when we take feedback, we scale it from 0 to 5 or 0 to 10, which is an example of Ordinal Data.

2) Quantitative Data

The Data which can be measured and is not observable is known as Quantitative Data. For this kind of data, we can take a measurement that can be recorded numerically and can be represented. In quantitative Data, we can represent numerical data. Example, Daily Temperature.

In this Data, there are two types that are also important

  • Discrete Data: The data which is having clear spaces in between them and the values. It cannot attain a range of values, and it can be represented in bar chart. Example, the number of chocolates in a box and the number of toys in a toy store.
  • Continuous Data: This information which comes under a continuous series. Continuous data can be tabulated in a frequency distribution table, and the information is also in histography. Example: Daily temperature readings of a place and Daily calories burn in the human body.

Data is useful for data scientists who are specialized in data science, and it is also useful for data analysts.

In statistics, we use data to get an appropriate graph or a pie chart that will relate to which we are working.

Statistically, data can be defined as a set of information or a value. Data is a plural thing, and datum is a singular thing per the reference. The collection of Data plays a significant role in daily life.

As per the statistical analysis, Data is of two types:

  • Primary data
  • Secondary Data

Primary data

The Data that are collected for the first time through your knowledge by your personal experiences or the research on a particular thing is known as Primary Data. It is also described as first-handed data or raw Data that needs modification in the future.

For example, let us take a group of scientists who are working on a thing that has not existed in the present time and existed in the past, and nobody knows about it. The research on that gives some information, and that particular information is known as first handed information or primary data.

Secondary data

The Data which is collected already and that needs a modification, and that might require additional research work is known as Secondary Data. It is also referred to as second handed data. The second handed Data is mostly used at the times of essay writings in school, for study purposes, and for research purposes. Sometimes these kinds of data may have copyrights. This kind of Data is in finished forms.

 For example, if we want to know the census report of our country for that, we need to research, which requires lots of money and patience. But we can access the census report in another way, that is, we can take it from government websites that already collected the information.

There are some major differences between Primary Data and Secondary Data that are as listed below:

  • Time and money.
  • In terms of definition.
  • Reliability and sustainability.
  • In terms of definition.
  • The type of data obtained.
  • In terms of examples.

These are the major differences between primary data and secondary data.


Hence, we concluded that Data is important for our lives, like in the economical business, social media companies, etc., so everyone tends to save data. In our systems or computers and mobile phones, we tend to save lots of data which is important to us. Most of the time, we depend on data or rely on data. There are lots of opportunities to get a job as a data scientist and data analyst. Mainly Data plays a special role in Big Data. Most social media platforms use this to store confidential data and have privacy.