Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What is a bit (Binary Digit)?

A bit is the short form of Binary digit, which is the basic unit of information in computing and digital communications. It is a binary value, meaning it can have only one of two possible states: 0 or 1. These two states are often referred to as "low" and "high," "off" and "on," or "false" and "true."

What is a bit (Binary Digit)?

Bits represent all types of data in a computer, from simple numbers and characters to more complex data such as images and videos. The amount of data a bit can represent is very small, so bits are often combined into groups of 8 or more to represent larger amounts of data. For example, 8 bits make up a byte, 16 bits make up a word, and so on.

In digital communications, bits represent the data transmitted over a network or other communication medium. In this context, a series of bits can represent a character, a word, or a message. The speed at which bits can be transmitted is measured in bits per second (bps) or bytes per second (Bps).

In computing, bits are also used to perform operations on data. The most basic operations are the logical operations, such as AND, OR and NOT, served on individual bits. These operations are performed using electronic circuits called logic gates. These basic operations form the basis of more complex operations and form the foundation of digital logic design.

It's also important to note that a bit is not just limited to 0 or 1 in some fields like quantum computing; there are more future representation possibilities.

Binary Number System in BIT  

In the binary number system, all values are represented using only two digits: 0 and 1. This is in contrast to the decimal number system, which operates ten digits (0 through 9) and the hexadecimal number system, which uses 16 digits (0-9, A-F).

Each digit in a binary number represents a power of 2. The rightmost digit is the least significant bit (LSB) and represents 2^0 (or 1), the next digit to the left represents 2^1 (or 2), and so on. For example, the binary number 10101 represents the decimal value 12^4 + 02^3 + 12^2 + 02^1 + 12^0 = 116 + 08 + 14 + 02 + 11 = 16 + 4 + 1 = 21.

Because it uses only two digits, the binary number system is particularly well-suited to digital computers, which use electronic circuits in one of only two states: on or off, high or low, 1 or 0. By representing data in binary form, computers can use these two states to represent any value.

Binary numbers represent many computer data types, including integers, floating-point numbers, and characters. Converting a decimal number to a binary and vice versa is called a binary-decimal conversion.

It's also important to note that the binary number system forms the foundation for other numbering systems like octal and hexadecimal, which group the binary digits into sets of 3 and 4, respectively, and then assign a new symbol to represent each set.

What is a bit (Binary Digit)?

BIT Operations

BIT operations, also known as bitwise operations, are basic operations that can be performed on individual bits of data in a computer. They are used to manipulate and extract data at the bit level. They often represent instructions and address memory in low-level programming and machine-level operations.

Here are some of the most common bit operations:

1) AND: This operation compares each bit of the first operand to the corresponding bit of the second. If both bits are 1, the corresponding result bit is set to 1; otherwise, the result bit is set to 0.

2) OR: This operation compares each bit of the first operand to the corresponding bit of the second operand. If either bit is 1, the corresponding result bit is set to 1.

3) NOTE: This operation flips each bit of the operand. A 0 becomes 1, and a one becomes 0.

4) XOR (Exclusive OR): This operation compares each bit of the first operand to the corresponding bit of the second operand. If the bits are different, the corresponding result bit is set to 1.

5) Left-shift: It shifts the bits of an operand to the left, discarding the bits shifted out and zero-filling the bits moved in.

6) Right-shift: It shifts the bits of an operand to the right, discarding the bits shifted out and zero-filling the bits moved in.

7) Bitwise masking: It isolates specific bits from the number by AND operation with a mask to extract information or to set specific bits as 0 or 1

8) Bitwise set: It sets specific bits as one by OR operation with a mask.

These operations are typically represented using special bitwise operators in programming languages such as & for AND, | for OR, ~ for NOT and ^ for XOR. It is important to note that these operations can be performed on any data type in most programming languages, but the result will be an integer. Also, the size of the resulting integer can be different based on the language and the platform.

Data Representation in BIT

A bit (short for binary digit) is a computer's basic data storage unit in computer science. A single binary number (0 or 1) represents data in a digital system. A group of bits, typically 8 or 16, is often used to describe larger data units, such as characters or integers. Data can also be represented in larger units, such as bytes, words, or double words, which are made up of multiple bits. Data can be expressed in different formats, such as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), Unicode, and binary-coded decimal (BCD).

Data Compression in BIT

Data compression is a technique to reduce the amount of data needed to represent a given information. In the context of bits, data compression can be achieved by removing redundant or unnecessary bits from a data stream. This can be done through techniques such as lossless and lossy compression.

Lossless compression techniques, such as Huffman coding, use algorithms that can compress data without losing any information. These techniques are reversible, meaning that the original data can be reconstructed exactly from the compressed data.

Lossy compression techniques, such as JPEG compression for images, remove some of the data deemed less important. These techniques are not reversible, meaning that the original data cannot be reconstructed exactly from the compressed data.

Data compression can also be achieved by simply reducing the number of bits used to represent a piece of data. For example, instead of using 32 bits to represent an integer, we can use only 8 bits if we know that the number will never be greater than 255.

It is worth noting that not all data is compressible, some data is already compressed or random, and in some cases, the compression process may even increase the size of the data.

Error Detection and Correction in BIT

Error detection and correction refers to techniques used to identify and correct errors that may occur during the transmission or storage of data. In the context of bits, errors can occur due to noise or interference on a transmission channel or hardware or software failures.

Error detection is the process of identifying errors in the data. One common method for error detection is redundancy, where extra bits are added to the data to allow the mistakes to be detected. For example, a checksum, a simple form of redundancy, is often added to a message to detect errors. Another example is a cyclic redundancy check (CRC), a more robust error detection form.

Error correction is the process of correcting errors that have been detected. One common method for error correction is forward error correction (FEC), where redundant data is added to the original data to allow errors to be corrected. For example, hamming codes, a simple form of forward error correction, can be used to correct single-bit errors. Another example is the Reed-Solomon code, a more powerful form of error correction that can correct multiple errors.

In some cases, error detection and correction may also be achieved by using a computer system's error-correcting codes (ECC) memory. ECC memory uses extra bits to detect and correct errors that may occur in the data stored in memory.

It is worth noting that error detection and correction techniques can add overhead to the data and may only be necessary for some situations. The choice of whether to use error detection and correction and which method to use depends on the specific application and the cost of errors.

Error-Correcting Code in BIT

Error-correcting codes (ECC) are a technique used to detect and correct errors that may occur in digital data during transmission or storage. In the context of bits, ECCs add redundant information to the original data, allowing errors to be detected and corrected.

There are two main types of ECCs:

1) Forward error correction (FEC): This type of ECC adds redundant information to the original data, allowing errors to be corrected without retransmission. Examples of FEC codes include Hamming codes, Reed-Solomon codes, and BCH codes.

2) Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ): This type of ECC uses feedback from the receiver to detect errors and request the retransmission of data if errors are detected. Examples of ARQ protocols include Stop-and-wait ARQ and Go-Back-N ARQ.

One of the most widely used ECC is Reed-Solomon codes, a type of forward error correction code that can correct multiple errors and detect them with high probability. They are commonly used in many applications, such as digital television, digital storage, and satellite communications.

ECC can be used in different layers of communication protocols; it can be used in the link layer, the network layer, or the transport layer. The choice of which ECC to use depends on the specific application and the cost of errors.

It is worth noting that ECCs add overhead to the data and can increase the system's complexity. Also, not all errors can be corrected and depending on the specific implementation, ECCs may not be able to fix all errors that occur.

Networking in BIT

Networking in the context of bits refers to the communication of data between different devices or systems using a network. A network is a collection of interconnected devices that can communicate with each other to exchange data and share resources.

There are different types of networks, including:

1) Local Area Networks (LANs): These networks connect devices within a small geographic area, such as a home or office.

2) Wide Area Networks (WANs): These networks connect devices across a larger geographic area, such as a city or country.

3) Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs): These networks connect devices within a metropolitan area.

4) Global Area Networks (GANs): These networks connect devices globally, such as the internet.

Networking in bits is based on transmitting digital data using binary signals represented by 0s and 1s. Data is typically shipped in packets containing the data to be shared and control information such as source and destination addresses.

Networking protocols, such as TCP/IP, govern data communication over a network. These protocols specify the rules and conventions that devices must follow to communicate with each other.

In addition to the physical connections, networking in bits also involves the use of software and hardware components such as routers, switches, hubs, modems and network interfaces that are used to connect devices to the network, control the flow of data and provide security and manageability.

Networking in bits has become an essential part of modern communication and technology, allowing devices to connect and share data across various applications, including the internet, cloud computing, IoT and many others.

Cryptography in BIT

Cryptography in the context of bits refers to the practice of securing digital data by transforming it in such a way as to make it unreadable to unauthorized parties. Cryptography uses mathematical algorithms to encrypt and decrypt data, providing confidentiality, integrity and authenticity.

There are two main types of cryptography: symmetric and asymmetric.

Symmetric cryptography, also known as secret key cryptography, uses the same key for encryption and decryption. Examples of symmetric algorithms include AES, DES, and Blowfish.

Asymmetric cryptography, also known as public key cryptography, uses a pair of keys for encryption and decryption. The encryption key is public, while the decryption key is private. Examples of asymmetric algorithms include RSA, Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC), and Diffie-Hellman.

Cryptography in bits also includes the use of digital signatures and digital certificates. A digital signature is a way to ensure the authenticity and integrity of a message; it uses a private key to sign the message and a public key to verify the signature.

A digital certificate is a form of identity verification that uses a combination of public key cryptography and a trusted third party, such as a certificate authority (CA), to verify the certificate holder's identity.

Cryptography in bits plays a crucial role in many areas, such as secure communication, secure data storage, secure e-commerce, and secure access to cloud services. It helps to protect sensitive information and prevent unauthorized access to data, making it an essential aspect of modern digital systems.