Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is flash memory?

Flash memory, commonly known as flash storage, is a non-volatile memory. In electronics products and enterprise software, flash memory is frequently used for storage and transfer.

What is flash memory

In-memory processing devices use flash memory to enhance the productivity and capacity of the system for handling and analyzing massive amounts of data.

NOR or NAND gates combinedly make up a flash memory chip. Intel invented NOR as a sort of memory location in 1988. The NOR gate connection supports full addresses, data buses, and unpredicted access to any memory area. The shelf life of NOR flash is 10,000 to 1,000,000 write/erase cycles.

Toshiba developed NAND just a year after NOR was released. It's faster, costs less per bit, takes up less chip space per cell, and is more resilient. A NAND gate has a shelf life of about 100,000 write/erase cycles.

Memory cards, USB flash drives, solid-state drives, feature phones, cellphones, and similar products use the NAND type for basic data transmission and storage.

Pcs, PDAs, digital music players, digital cameras, cell phones, synthesizers, video games, scientific equipment, industrial robots, and medical devices all use flash memory. Although flash memory has a quick read access time, it is slower than static RAM or ROM. Because of its physical shock resilience, it is chosen over hard discs in portable devices.

History of origin

Dr Fujio Masuoka devised the flash memory when working for Toshiba in 1984. Thus, according to Toshiba, Dr Masuoka's colleague, Mr Shoji Ariizumi offered the name "Flash" because the erasing procedure of the system memory reminds him of a camera flash.

NOR-based flash has slow erase and rewrite speeds, but it features a complete address/data (memory) connectivity that permits access to any place at any time. This makes it ideal for storing program code that has to be changed rarely, such as a computer's BIOS or set-top box software.

Flash memory working principle

Data is stored in a flash memory array of floating gate transistors. Every single-level cell (SLC) gadget unit contains only one bit of data. And over one bit can be stored per cell in multi-level cell (MLC) and triple-level cell (TLC) gadgets.

The floating gate can be conductive or non-conductive.

A flash memory design comprises a memory array stacked with multiple flash cells. A simple flash memory cell comprises a storage transistor that has both a control and a floating gate and is isolated from the rest of the device by a thin dielectric or oxide layer. The floating gate, which regulates the current flow, stores the electrical charge. Electrons are added or removed from the floating gate to change the storage transistor's peak value. The voltage affects whether a cell is coded as a one or a zero.

Types of flash memory

1. NOR flash

What is flash memory

Every cell in a NOR flash circuit has one end linked to the ground and another end linked to a bit line. Since it behaves like a NOR gate, this design is renamed "NOR flash": when one of the term lines is pulled high, the matching storage transistor pulls the output bit line low. For embedded systems that need a distinct non-volatile memory chip, NOR flash remains the best technology. Because NOR devices have low read response times, they can be used for direct software operations and data storage in a single memory item.

2. NAND flash

Although NAND memory employs floating-gate transistors, these are coupled in a method that mimics a NAND gate, with many transistors linked in series and the bit line pushed low only if all the word lines are tried to pull high. These groupings are then joined to a NOR-style bit line array by several extra transistors, similar to how single transistors are joined in NOR flash.

What is flash memory

Replacement of only one transistor with serial-linked groups provides an extra level of dealing compared to NOR flash. NAND flash addresses storage by page, text, and bit, while NOR flash addresses memory by page, text, and bit. Bit-serial applications benefit from bit-level addressing since they only access one bit simultaneously. Implementation programs, on the other hand, need instantaneous control of every bit of a text. These needs addressing in the given text. Both bit and word addressing modes are feasible with either NOR or NAND storage.

Flash memory form factors

A silicon substrate is used in flash-based devices. Solid-state devices, as they are often known, are extensively applied in consumer electronics and business data storage systems.

The Solid-State Storage Initiative has recognized three different SSD form factors:

  • Solid-state drives (SSDs) that may be installed in the same slots as classic electromechanical hard disc drives (HDDs). SSDs have a similar design to integrated circuits.
  • Solid-state cards with a standard card form factor, such as Peripheral Component Interconnect Express, that are mounted on a printed circuit board (PCIe).
  • Solid-state modules that fit in a dual inline memory module (DIMM) or small outline dual inline memory module using a standard HDD interface, such as the Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA).

Difference between NOR and NAND flash

NOR and NAND flash differ in two ways: the connectivity between individual memory cells are distinct, as are the interfaces for reading and writing the memory. NAND permits only page access, whereas NOR allows random access.

The architecture of the links between memory cells gives NOR and NAND flash their names. Cells in NOR flash are linked in parallel to the bit lines, enabling cells to be read and coded. In a CMOS NOR gate, the parallel connection of cells mirrors the parallel connection of transistors. Cells in NAND memory are linked in series, similar to CMOS NAND gates. Because series connections take up less space as compared to parallel connections, the price of NAND memory is reduced. It does not, on its own, protect you from harm.

Advantage and Disadvantage of flash memory

The following are some of the benefits of flash memory:

  • Flash memory is the less costly type of semiconductor storage memory; with the exception of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) and static random-access memory (SRAM), it is non-volatile, runs at less power, and can be removed in huge blocks.
  • NOR memory has faster random read rates, but NAND flash has faster serial read and write speeds.
  • Older magnetic device, such as HDDs and tape, are substantially slower than SSDs using NAND flash memory chips.
  • Flash SSDs also use less energy and emit less heat than hard disc drives.

Application of flash memory

Serial flash

Serial flash is a tiny, low-power flash memory that only allows sequential access to the files, rather than assessing individual bytes.  SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface Bus) is a popular method for connecting to a computer. Serial flash memories require less wires on the PCB when integrated into an embedded system than parallel flash memories since they send and receive data one bit at a time. This might result in less board area, less power usage, and a lower total system cost.

Flash memory as a replacement for hard drives

The use of flash memory as a hard drive alternative is a relatively recent application. Solid-state drives (SSDs) are appealing when considered speed, noise, energy consumption, and stability since flash memory does not have the physical restrictions and inefficiencies of hard drives. Flash drives are becoming more popular as backup storage devices for mobile devices, and they are also being utilized to replace hard drives in high-performance desktop PCs and some servers with RAID and SAN designs.

There are still several flaws with flash-based SSDs that make them unappealing. Flash memory continues to be substantially more expensive per GB than hard drives. Also, flash memory has a limited number of P/E (program/erase) cycles, but this appears to be below controlled now that flash-based SSD lifetimes are nearing those of hard drives.

Furthermore, erased files on SSDs can persist indefinitely before being replaced by new data; erasure or shredding procedures or software that work well on magnetic hard disc drives have no impact on SSDs, jeopardizing security and forensic scrutiny.

Flash memory as RAM

As of 2012, there have been attempts to employ flash memory instead of DRAM as the primary computer memory.

Unlike RAM, flash memory is non-volatile and can save data even when the power is turned off. The performance of flash memory is much slower than that of any form of RAM. Flash is utilized for store memory in products such as SD cards, USB drives, and SSDs because of its low energy consumption, long life, and low price.