Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device

Components

Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware

Memory

Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports

How

How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF

Questions

Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling

Difference

Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples

Misc

Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What is a DNS Resolver?

The Domain Name System (DNS), which provides a means of converting human-readable domain names into IP addresses that computers can comprehend, is a crucial component of the internet's architecture. A key element of the DNS system, DNS resolvers translate domain names into IP addresses on behalf of client devices. This article will examine DNS resolvers, including what they are, how they operate, and their significance.

What is a DNS Resolver

An application or service that converts domain names into IP addresses is a DNS resolver. A DNS query is sent by a web browser to a DNS resolver when a user types a domain name into their browser to ask the server to translate the domain name to an IP address. While it searches through DNS servers for the IP address related to the domain name, the DNS resolver employs the DNS protocol. The client device can connect to the desired website or service after the DNS resolver returns the IP address after it has been located.

How Do DNS Resolvers Work?

A client device sends a DNS query to a DNS resolver when it wants to translate a domain name to an IP address. The domain name that needs to be resolved is contained in the query. The domain name is subsequently resolved to an IP address by the DNS resolver via a recursive DNS resolution procedure. The following actions are part of the recursive DNS resolution process:

Step 1: Querying the Root DNS Servers

The DNS resolver must query the root servers before beginning the recursive DNS resolution procedure. The top-level domains (TLDs), such as.com ,.org, and.net, are listed on the root DNS servers, a global network of computers. When a domain name query is received, the DNS resolver determines if the TLD is one of the TLDs the root DNS servers are aware of. If so, the DNS resolver asks one of the root DNS servers to determine which DNS server manages the TLD.

Step 2: Querying the TLD DNS Servers

After determining which DNS server is in charge of the TLD, the DNS resolver requests that server to determine which DNS server is in charge of the next-level domain. If the domain name is www.example.com, for instance, the DNS resolver would ask the DNS server for the.com TLD to determine which DNS server is in charge of the example.com domain.

Step 3: Querying the Authoritative DNS Server

After determining which DNS server is in charge of the domain, the DNS resolver contacts that server to discover the IP address related to the domain name. Due to its authoritative domain knowledge, this DNS server is referred to as the authoritative DNS server. The IP address related to the domain name is returned as a response to the query by the authoritative DNS server.

Step 4: Caching the Result

The client device that made the initial inquiry obtains the IP address once the DNS resolver receives it from the authoritative DNS server. Moreover, the DNS resolver caches the outcome to enable rapid responses to subsequent requests for the same domain name.

Why are DNS resolvers important?

To translate domain names into IP addresses for client devices, DNS resolvers are a crucial part of the internet infrastructure. Users would have to memorise the IP addresses of every website they wished to access if DNS resolvers didn't exist, which is unpleasant and impractical. By assisting in preventing DNS attacks, including DNS cache poisoning, DNS hijacking, and DNS amplification assaults, DNS resolvers also play a significant part in internet security.

An attack is known as "DNS cache poisoning" involves injecting fake data into a DNS resolver's cache, forcing the resolver to provide clients with incorrect IP addresses. An attack known as DNS hijacking occurs when an attacker intercepts

What is a DNS Resolver

Tips for using

As an AI language model, I can provide some general tips for using DNS resolvers effectively and efficiently:

Use a reliable DNS resolver: On the internet, there are a lot of free DNS resolvers, but not all of them are trustworthy. Certain DNS resolvers could be malicious, slow, or have a high failure rate. Use a reputable, well-known DNS resolver like Google Public DNS, OpenDNS, or Cloudflare DNS wherever possible.

Use a fast DNS resolver: Your internet connection's full speed can be impacted by the speed of a DNS resolver. While loading websites or establishing connections to internet services, a sluggish DNS resolver might create delays. To determine which DNS resolver is the quickest for your area, utilise a DNS benchmarking tool to measure their speed.

Use a trusted DNS resolver: Although there are multiple DNS resolvers accessible, not all of them are reliable. Certain DNS resolvers have the potential to record your DNS requests, sell your information to outside parties, or even insert malware or advertising into your web pages. It's crucial to pick a reliable DNS resolution from an established vendor.

Use a secure connection: Make careful you connect securely while using a DNS resolver. Hence, you should use DNS over HTTPS (DoH) or TLS (DoT). These protocols encrypt your DNS requests and responses to stop hackers from listening in and meddling with them.

Use multiple DNS resolvers: Your internet security and performance can be enhanced using several DNS resolvers. Your device can automatically switch to a different DNS resolver if one is unresponsive or slow. Several DNS resolvers can also offer redundancy and safeguard against DNS assaults that target a particular DNS resolver.

Clear your DNS cache: Your DNS query results are cached by DNS resolvers to increase performance. This cache, however, may grow out of the current, resulting in sluggish or inaccurate DNS resolution. Ensuring your DNS resolver provides the most recent data possible may be achieved by frequently clearing your DNS cache.

Monitor your DNS traffic: You may notice odd DNS activity and stop DNS assaults by watching your DNS traffic. You may track your DNS traffic and examine it for security issues using a network monitoring tool or a DNS monitoring service.

Keep your DNS resolver up-to-date: The same security flaws that affect other software also affect DNS resolvers. To guarantee that your DNS resolver is secured against known vulnerabilities, it is crucial to keep it updated with the most recent security patches and upgrades.

In conclusion, Domain names are converted into IP addresses by DNS resolvers, a crucial part of the internet's architecture. By using DNS resolvers wisely and securely, you can enhance internet performance while preserving your privacy and security.

Why you need a DNS Resolver?

DNS resolvers are crucial in connecting devices to websites and other internet services. Here are some reasons why you need a DNS resolver:

  • DNS resolvers translate domain names into IP addresses: Your device needs to know the IP address associated with the domain name you type into your web browser, such as "www.google.com," to connect to the website. For your device to access the website, DNS resolvers convert domain names into IP addresses.
  • DNS resolvers improve internet performance: Your device can receive an IP address from a DNS resolver's cache rather than submitting a fresh DNS query each time you visit a website because DNS resolvers save the results of your DNS queries. Web browsing and other online activities can be made faster thanks to this caching, which can considerably improve internet performance.
  • DNS resolvers can provide security features: Several DNS resolvers provide security measures like banning advertisements and other undesirable content or screening out known harmful websites. These features can make browsing more enjoyable while assisting in the protection of your device and network from security risks.
  • DNS resolvers can bypass content restrictions: Internet usage is regulated or banned in various nations. You can access websites and content that might otherwise be banned by utilizing a DNS resolver that can get around these limitations.
  • DNS resolvers can improve privacy: DNS requests can reveal sensitive information, such as the websites you frequent. You may increase your online privacy and security by utilizing a DNS resolver that doesn't record your DNS requests or sell your information to outside parties.

Devices cannot connect to websites and other internet services without DNS resolvers. They can boost internet speed, offer security measures, get around content limitations, and increase privacy. You can ensure your internet experience is quick, safe, and dependable by utilizing a reputable DNS resolver.

How names are Resolved

When you type a domain name into your web browser, such as "www.google.com," your device must translate that domain name into an IP address to connect to the website. This process is called name resolution and involves several steps.

Local DNS cache: Your device checks its local DNS cache first to see if it has a record of the domain name's IP address. If it does, it can connect to the website directly without sending a DNS query.

Recursive DNS resolver: If the domain name's IP address isn't in the local DNS cache, your device sends a DNS query to a recursive DNS resolver. The recursive DNS resolver is responsible for finding the IP address associated with the domain name.

Root DNS servers: If the recursive DNS resolver doesn't have a record of the domain name's IP address, it sends a query to the root DNS servers. There are 13 root DNS servers worldwide that are responsible for storing information about top-level domain names, such as ".com" and ".org."

Top-level domain servers: The root DNS servers provide the recursive DNS resolver with the IP addresses of the top-level domain servers responsible for the domain name's extension, such as ".com." The recursive DNS resolver sends a query to the top-level domain servers.

Authoritative DNS servers: The top-level domain servers provide the recursive DNS resolver with the IP addresses of the authoritative DNS servers responsible for the specific domain name. The recursive DNS resolver sends a query to the authoritative DNS servers.

DNS response: The authoritative DNS servers provide the recursive DNS resolver with the IP address associated with the domain name. The recursive DNS resolver stores this information in its cache and sends the IP address back to your device, which can then connect to the website.

This process can take a few milliseconds to several seconds, depending on various factors, such as the responsiveness of the DNS servers and the complexity of the DNS query. However, once the recursive DNS resolver has cached the IP address associated with the domain name, subsequent queries for that domain name will be much faster.

How to change your DNS Resolver

Changing your DNS resolver can be a simple and effective way to improve internet performance, security, and privacy or bypass content restrictions. Here are the steps to change your DNS resolver:

Choose a new DNS resolver: There are many DNS resolvers to choose from, including public resolvers offered by companies like Google, Cloudflare, and OpenDNS, as well as private resolvers offered by VPN providers, internet service providers, or third-party software.

Determine the IP address of the DNS resolver: Once you have chosen a DNS resolver, you need to find its IP address. This information is usually available on the DNS resolver's website or documentation.

Configure your device's network settings: To change your DNS resolver, you must configure your device's network settings. The process varies depending on the operating system and device you are using but generally involves the following steps:

  • Windows: Go to Control Panel > Network and Internet > Network and Sharing Center > Change adapter settings. Right-click on the network adapter you are using and select Properties. Select Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) or Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6) and click Properties. Select Use the following DNS server addresses and enter the IP address of the DNS resolver you want.
  • Mac: Go to System Preferences > Network. Select the network adapter you are using and click Advanced. Select the DNS tab and click the "+" button to add a new server. Enter the IP address of the DNS resolver you want to use.
  • Android: Go to Settings > Network & internet > Wi-Fi > Wi-Fi preferences. Long-press on the network you are using and select Modify network. Select Advanced options and change the IP settings to Static. Enter the IP address of the DNS resolver you want to use in the DNS 1 and DNS 2 fields.
  • iOS: Go to Settings > Wi-Fi. Tap the "i" icon next to the network you are using and scroll down to DNS. Tap Configure DNS and select Manual. Add the IP address of the DNS resolver you want to use.

Test the new DNS resolver: Once you have configured your device's network settings, you can test the new DNS resolver by visiting a website or using an online DNS lookup tool to verify that your device is using the new DNS resolver.

It's worth noting that changing your DNS resolver can have different effects depending on your location, network configuration, and the DNS resolver you choose. It's important to choose a trusted DNS resolver and monitor your internet performance and security after changing your DNS resolver to ensure that it meets your needs.\

Summary

In conclusion, an essential part of the internet's network, DNS resolvers convert domain names into IP addresses so that devices can connect to websites and services. Your device performs a multi-step name resolution process when you enter a domain name into a web browser.