Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit

Why has my IP address changed

IP Address: Internet Protocol address, in short form, is known as IP address. This address could pose security liability, and these addresses are building blocks of the internet. IP addresses are mathematically produced by the IANA (internet assigned numbers authority), a division of the ICANN (internet corporation for assigned names and numbers). ICANN was established in the United States in 1998 to allow the internet to be used by all people, and it is a non-profit organization.

Why has my IP address changed?

An IP address is made up of numbers as well as strings. Periods of separation will be there in these addresses. These numbers string is attached to the devices which use IP addresses. We can express each address as four numbers set. can be taken as an example. The range is 0 to 255. to 255.2555.255.255 is the full IP addressing range.

These Internet Protocol addresses can be called identifiers because they are unique. It is specified to a particular device only. Can know the information and send the information by using these addresses through computers. The passing of information between different devices is possible. Contain location information of particular devices. They provide a way to do work. It is a unique address. The other thing about IP addresses is they are not random. As these addresses are unique, it identifies whether it is on the local network or another.

IP Addresses Versions  

IPv4 and IPv6 are the two versions of IP addresses.

Ipv4: IPv4(Internet Protocol version 4) addresses are written in four parts, and these four parts are separated by dots. Let us understand the IPv4 address by an example. Example: In this version, we can see the dotted decimal notation, network prefix and host number are parts of this version and contains 32-bit numbers. These addresses cannot be more than 255 (111111 – binary number of 255).

As computers fundamentally deal with numbers in binary form, these addresses, that are written in standard decimal notations, are converted into binary numbers. The length of each header field is twenty, and the total number of header fields is 12 in IPv4 addresses. Unicast, broadcast, and multicast are the styles of IPv4 addresses. With this version of addresses, we can keep this more secure and private as these addresses encrypt data. Gives security measures by using its addressing packets

The process of routing becomes more efficient in IPv4 because addresses are combined more efficiently. This version's IP address is also more secure. There are five classes in IPv4 addresses, and they are identified by the first octet of the IP address. The IPv4 addresses were going out to run because of the development of the IPv6 version. But still, IPv4 addresses are widely used.

IPv6: IPv6(Internet Protocol version 6) addresses are 128-bit numbers; 128-bit numbers mean that there are two power 128 possible addresses which is a thirty-nine-digit long number, and this thirty-nine-digit long number is called undecillion, which means it allows 3.4 x 10 6 38 addresses approximately. This IPv6 version is the most recent version, which dominates the IPv4 address.

These addresses have 16-bit numbers or fields. Each field in this IPv6 address is bounded by a colon, and also each field should contain a hexadecimal number too. The range of IPv6 addresses is from 0000:0000:0000: 0000:0000:0000: 0000:0000 to ffff: ffff: ffff: ffff: ffff: ffff: ffff: ffff. IPv6, also known as IPng. The predecessor of IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) is IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4).

These IPv6 addresses contain three parts or elements are global routing prefix, a subnet ID and an interface ID. There are eight fields in the Internet Protocol version 6 address, which is in contrast to the Internet Protocol version 4. ISP is also involved in providing and organizing the addresses uniquely.

The main differences between these two versions are it is possible to create unique IPv6 addresses 2^128 than IPv4 addresses 2^32. IPv6 is an alphanumeric addressing method, while IPv4 is a numeric addressing method. The IPv4 addresses contain checksum fields. The binary bits in IPv6 are separated by a colon, whereas in IPv4 addresses, the binary bits are separated by a dot. The IPv6 have a simpler head format. It is more efficient in routing when compared to IPv4 addresses. IPv6 is more secure, and we can share files easily.

How does An IP Address work?

IP addresses are unique, and they check whether the device is receiving what has been sent correctly or not, so they can compare with SSN (Social Security Number). Letters have been added to some addresses as internet usage grows. But most IP addresses are purely numerical in starting. For delivering to the address, they need a router. The reason why computers send and receive data over the internet is because of IP addresses. The establishment of the connection is done with the help of routers. We can appreciate the work of IP addresses in the way they are working uniquely and sending the correct information on the internet. These IP addresses' work is almost similar to post office work. The way they are created affects their work very much to work efficiently.

Let us know about four types of addresses.

They are:

  1. Public Internet Protocol address
  2. Private Internet Protocol address
  3. Static Internet Protocol address
  4. Dynamic Internet Protocol address

Public Internet Protocol Address: This IP address is used outside of a network, as the name indicates.

Private Internet Protocol Address: This IP address is used inside of a network, as the name indicates.

Private Internet Protocol addresses and Public Internet Protocol addresses are both indicative of the location of the network.

Static Internet Protocol Address: A static IP address is manually created, not unlike other IP addresses (like private, public and static). It opposes being assigned.

Dynamic Internet Protocol Address: DHCP assigns a dynamic internet protocol address. DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). And these addresses are supposed to change.

Dynamic Internet Protocol addresses are also known as common IP addresses, as they are most people use them. These dynamic IP addresses will expire over time, and they are active only for a certain amount of time.

Both dynamic and static indicate permanency.

Why has my IP address changed?

ISP (Internet Service Provider) provides Internet Protocol addresses; we know very well about this thing. If we create or set up an account, they directly assign IP addresses to us. To install the connection, this ISP directly visits our home to install the connection. To everything work well, the IP address plays an important, vital and major role. Because from the day starting to the end of the day, we use the internet to do all our important work.

Why has my IP address changed?

To all these works well, we need internet and IP address plays a major role in the background. If this internet does not work the way it has to work, we have to work with our ISP’s technical department to get everything corrected. At a time, thousands and thousands in particular areas, and millions and millions around the world, computer devices, mobile or handled devices work at a time. And everything is interconnected. According to our users, we use the internet. If we do work most of the time, we use the internet or else we just use it for a few minutes. Sometimes our IP address will change, but most of the time, we will find that our IP address will not change.   

Let us know a few reasons why our IP address changes:

When connecting to the internet with broadband, we are given a static Internet Protocol address, and this address will be the same each time. We need a broadband internet connection to use a static internet protocol address. But sometimes, this address will change. For every fourteen days, there is a DHCP lease renewal. Sometimes we will be assigned to previous connections if we connect to the internet each time using a modem.

Below are a few reasons why our IP address has changed.

  1. If the given DHCP lease time to our IP address has expired, the IP address will change.
  2. Internet Service Provider changes the router or centre is responsible for address.
  3. ISP has pointed out a network failure causing rebuilding of routing tables of routers.

Setting a Static IP Address

There are many reasons that we may need to change and set a static Internet Protocol address for our IP device. By setting static IP addresses, we can avoid network conflicts. As static IP address works to advance the functioning of the network, we will have great advantages by using it.

Steps need to follow

  1. Access the control panel
  2. Select the Network Adapter
  3. Select Properties
  4. Select internet protocol version 4(IPv4)
  5. Enter IP address and subnet mask and then save settings
  6. Revert Back to DHCP