Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device

Components

Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware

Memory

Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports

How

How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc

Questions

Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post

Difference

Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs

Misc

Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick

How to shut down a computer

Whenever the Shutdown is done, all the programs, software, files, and operating system are shut down. The RAM is cleared, so before shutting down the device, the user should ensure that all the work is saved, as after the device comes back from a shutdown, all the previous unsaved work won't be seen.

Benefits of the computer shutdown:

  • The computer or laptop runs fast as the RAM is cleared.
  • The system is being solved.
  • Battery power is not used when the system is shut down.

Methods to restart the computer are:

  1. Using windows desktop to Shut down.
  2. By the start menu.
  3. Using the shortcut of Ctrl + Alt + Del.
  4. By using the command line.
  5. Physically shut downing the computer.
  6. By Windows + X keys.

1. Using windows desktop to Shut down

In this method of restarting the computer, get to the desktop and press Alt + F4 on the keyboard. Then a menu will appear below. Select the Shutdown option and ok.

Alt + F4 > Shut down > Ok.
How to shut down a computer

2. Shut downing by the start menu

Windows 11

The start menu of windows 11 is different from other versions. In this to restart, the steps are as follows:

  • Select Start from the taskbar.
  • Click the power option.
  • Then click shut down.
    Start > power button > shut down.

Windows 10

  • Select Start from the taskbar.
  • Select the power button.
  • From the power menu, click shut down.
    Start > power button > shut down.
How to shut down a computer

Windows 8 and 8.1

Both versions do not have a start menu, but in the 8.1 updates, the power button is placed in the upper right corner of the start screen.

Power button > Shut down.
How to shut down a computer

Windows Vista and 7

In both these versions, follow the below steps to restart

  • Select Start from the taskbar.
  • Then select shut down from the menu.
    Start > shutdown.
How to shut down a computer

Windows XP and prior versions

  • Select Start from the screen.
  • Select the Shutdown button.
    Start > shut down button.

3. Using shortcut Ctrl + Alt + Del

When the mouse is unavailable or not responding, do a restart by using the keyboard. For this, press the Ctrl + Alt + Del keys at a time, then a menu is displayed in that select power button.

Windows 10 and 11

In these windows versions, pressing the above keys redirects the user to the lock screen and restart windows.

  • Select the power icon from the lock screen
  • Then click on Shut down from the menu.

Windows 8

By clicking Ctrl + Alt + Del windows, 8 will redirect to the lock screen, then restart the windows.

  • Select the power icon in black from the lock screen.
  • Then select Shut down from the menu.

Windows Vista and 7

In these windows versions, pressing Ctrl + Alt + Del will redirect to the lock screen with several options. At the bottom right corner, select the arrow next to the red button. It displays a list of options to shut down.

  • Select the arrow which opens the menu.
  • Click shut down.
How to shut down a computer

Windows XP and prior

Clicking Ctrl + Alt + Del in Windows XP and previous versions gives the Windows Security screen, then shuts down.

  • Select the Shutdown button.
  • In the new pop-up, select shut down by clicking on the down arrow
  • Click ok
How to shut down a computer

4. By using the command line

With the help of the command prompt, restarting the windows is possible.

  • Open the command prompt in windows after choosing windows+R in the keyboard and then type “cmd”.
  • For windows restart, write shutdown -s and press enter key on the keyboard.

Windows + R > type cmd > type shutdown -s > enter.

Syntax:

C:\Users\apple> shutdown -s

5. Physically shut down the computer

When the Shutdown does not happen by the Shutdown options stated above, the user should physically Shutdown by pressing the power button until the device is shut down and then releasing the button. Shut down can be done when the computer is stuck or frozen and when it becomes unresponsive.

The last option must be forcefully shutting down the computer system because it can harm the operating system files and hardware drives. Whenever the user turns on the system, files could be corrupted, showing errors. Therefore, forced Shutdown should be done as a last resort.

6. By Windows + X keys

The last method of restarting the windows is by using the shortcut from the Link menu.

Press Windows + X keys on the keyboard simultaneously, which opens the Link menu. In the Link menu, using the cursor or down-word arrow key, traverse to the Shutdown or sign out and click on Shut down.

Windows + X > Shut down or sign out > Shut down.
How to shut down a computer

Chromebook shut down

Shutting down the chrome book is as follows:

  • Select the Power button icon and click on it. On the desktop's bottom-right corner, click on the digits that show time.
How to shut down a computer

Shutting down in Apple macOS

Follow the below steps to shut down the Apple macOS

  • On the desktop's top-left corner, click on the Apple menu.
  • Then click on Shut Down.