Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

Basics of Information Technology

Information Technology Fundamentals

The use of computers, software, networks, and other digital technologies to manage, process, store, and transfer data and information is referred to as information technology (IT).

The field of IT is vast and includes a variety of different sub-disciplines, such as:

Computer Hardware

The physical components of a computer system that allow it to perform tasks and process information are referred to as computer hardware. The central processing unit (CPU), memory, storage devices like as hard drives and solid state drives, input/output (I/O) devices such as keyboards and mice, and the motherboard that brings everything together are among these components.

Here is a more detailed overview of each of these hardware components:

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU): It consists of one or more processing cores, each of which can execute instructions in parallel. The speed of the CPU is measured in clock cycles per second (Hz), with modern CPUs running at speeds of several GHz (billions of cycles per second).
  • Memory: Memory (also known as RAM) is used to temporarily store data and instructions that are being processed by the CPU. When a program is opened, its instructions and data are loaded into memory, where they can be accessed quickly by the CPU.
  • Storage Devices: Storage devices are used to store data and programs permanently. There are two main types of storage devices: hard disk drives (HDDs) and solid-state drives (SSDs). HDDs use spinning disks and magnetic heads to read and write data, while SSDs use flash memory chips. SSDs are faster and more reliable than HDDs, but they are also more expensive.
  • Input/Output Devices: Input/output devices allow users to interact with the computer and input data (such as typing on a keyboard) or output data (such as displaying an image on a monitor). Common input devices include keyboards, mice, and touchpads, while common output devices include monitors, speakers, and printers.
  • Motherboard: The motherboard is the main circuit board in a computer, connecting all of the other hardware components together. It contains the CPU socket, memory slots, and connectors for storage devices, input/output devices, and other peripherals. The motherboard also contains other components such as the chipset, which controls data flow between the CPU and other devices, and the BIOS (Basic Input/Output System), which provides the initial boot-up instructions for the computer.
  • For example, a user can upgrade the amount of memory in their computer or replace an HDD with an SSD to improve storage performance. Overall, understanding computer hardware is an essential part of working with computers and technology.


Software refers to the programs and instructions that enable a computer to perform specific tasks and process data. Without software, a computer is essentially a useless machine. The software can be divided into two main categories: system software and application software.

System Software

Following is a list of some system software:

  • Operating Systems: An operating system (OS) is the software that manages all of the computer's hardware and software resources. It provides a user interface for interacting with the computer and manages tasks such as file management, memory management, and device drivers.
  • Device Drivers: Device drivers are software programs that allow the operating system to communicate with hardware devices such as printers, scanners, and graphics cards. Without device drivers, the operating system would not be able to recognize or use these devices.
  • Utility Programs: Utility programs are system software that performs specific tasks such as disk cleanup, system maintenance, and virus scanning.

Application Software

Application software is designed to perform specific tasks or solve specific problems for users.

It includes programs such as:

  • Productivity software: This includes programs that are used to create documents, spreadsheets, and presentations such as Microsoft Office, Google Suite, and Adobe Creative Suite.
  • Media software: This includes programs used to edit or play music, videos, and images such as iTunes, Windows Media Player, and Adobe Photoshop.
  • Games: This includes software designed for entertainment and game-playing such as Call of Duty, Fortnite, and Minecraft.
  • Web Browsers: These are programs used to access the internet and view web pages such as Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and Safari.

The software can be distributed in many ways, including installation from a physical disc, downloading from the internet, or through cloud-based services.


Networking refers to the process of connecting two or more computers or devices together to share resources and exchange data.

Network Components

  1. Nodes: Nodes are devices that are connected to the network, such as computers, printers, and routers.
  2. Network Interface Card (NIC): It is usually built into the computer's motherboard or installed as an expansion card.
  3. Switches: A switch is a device that connects devices together in a network by creating a communication link between them. It works at the data link layer of the OSI model and uses MAC addresses to direct traffic between devices. When a switch receives data from one device, it determines which device the data should be sent according to its MAC address. This enables switches to improve the performance of a network by reducing the amount of unnecessary traffic and ensuring that data is sent only to the intended recipient.
  4. Routers: A router, on the other hand, is a device that connects different networks together. It works at the network layer of the OSI model and uses IP addresses to direct traffic between networks. When a router receives data, it looks at the destination IP address and determines the best path for the data to travel to reach its destination. Routers can also perform other functions such as filtering traffic based on rules and policies, blocking malicious traffic, and providing network security features such as firewalls and virtual private networks (VPNs).
  5. Cables and Wires: Cables and wires are used to physically connect nodes to the network.

Network Types

There are several types of networks, including:

  1. Local Area Network (LAN): LAN, or Local Area Network, is a type of network that connects devices within a limited geographic area, such as an office, school, or home. LANs are typically owned and managed by a single organization or individual and can be connected using wired or wireless technology. LANs are often used for sharing resources such as printers, files, and internet access, and for communication between devices within the network.
  2. Wide Area Network (WAN): A WAN is a network that connects devices across a large geographic area, such as a country or a continent.
  3. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): MAN, or Metropolitan Area Network, is a type of network that connects devices across a larger geographic area than a LAN, typically within a city or metropolitan area. MANs are often owned and operated by multiple organizations, such as universities or government agencies, and may use a combination of wired and wireless technology to connect devices. MANs are often used for high-speed data transfer, such as for sharing large files or streaming media.
  4. Wireless Network: A wireless network uses radio waves to connect devices together, such as Wi-Fi networks.

Network Protocols

Some common network protocols include:

  1. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP): TCP/IP is a set of protocols that are used to transfer data over the internet and other networks.
  2. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): HTTP is a protocol used to transfer web pages and other content over the internet.
  3. File Transfer Protocol (FTP): FTP is a protocol used to transfer files between computers over a network.

Network Security

Network security is the process of protecting a network from unauthorized access and attacks. Some common network security measures include:

  1. Firewalls: Firewalls are software or hardware devices that block unauthorized access to a network.
  2. Virtual Private Network (VPN): VPN stands for Virtual Private Network, which is a type of network technology that creates a secure and encrypted connection between two or more devices, typically over the internet. The main purpose of a VPN is to provide a secure connection and protect the privacy of data transmitted over the network.
    When you connect to a VPN, your device creates a secure and encrypted connection to the VPN server. All data sent between your device and the VPN server is encrypted, which makes it difficult for anyone to intercept or steal your data. Additionally, your IP address is masked, which helps to protect your identity and location.

Information Security

Information security refers to the practices and techniques used to protect information and data from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, modification, or destruction. Information security is essential to protect sensitive information, including personal, financial, and business data.

Here is a more detailed overview of information security and its components:

  • Confidentiality: Confidentiality is the protection of sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure. This includes both physical and digital information, such as customer data, financial records, and trade secrets.
  • Integrity: Integrity is achieved through various measures such as backups, access controls, and error checking.
  • Availability: Availability is the assurance that information is available when needed. This includes ensuring that systems and data are accessible to authorized users and that they are not subject to disruption or denial of service attacks. Availability is achieved through various measures such as backups, redundancy, and disaster recovery planning.
  • Authentication: This involves ensuring that users are who they claim to be and that devices are authorized to access the network or system. Authentication is achieved through various measures such as passwords, biometrics, and multi-factor authentication.
  • Authorization: Authorization is the process of granting or denying access to resources based on a user's identity and permissions. This involves ensuring that users are only granted access to the information and resources they are authorized to access. Authorization is achieved through various measures such as access controls, permissions, and role-based access control.
  • Encryption: Encryption is the process of encoding information so that it is unreadable to unauthorized users. This involves converting plaintext into ciphertext using encryption algorithms and keys.

Database Management

Database management refers to the process of organizing, storing, and manipulating data within a database.

Here is a more detailed overview of database management and its components:

  • Data Modeling: Data modeling is the process of creating a conceptual representation of data and the relationships between different data elements. This involves identifying the entities, attributes, and relationships that make up the data model. Data modeling is essential for designing a database schema that is efficient and optimized for querying and manipulation.
  • Database Design: Database design involves creating a logical and physical structure for the database. This includes defining the tables, fields, and relationships that make up the database schema. Database design also involves defining the constraints, indexes, and other structures that optimize the performance of the database.
  • Data Manipulation: Data manipulation involves adding, modifying, and deleting data within the database. This includes using SQL (Structured Query Language) to perform CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) operations on the database. Data manipulation is essential for maintaining the accuracy and completeness of the data within the database.
  • Data Retrieval: This involves using SQL to create queries that select, filter, and sort data based on specific parameters. Data retrieval is essential for generating reports, performing analysis, and extracting insights from the data within the database.