Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is Hybrid Topology?

A hybrid topology is also called network topology. Topology can be defined as the physical and logical arrangements of computer networks. We can say that topology is nothing, but how and by what factors are the nodes' physical and logical arrangement so that all networks can easily communicate with every node. A physical arrangement refers to how the computers are connected to a network. And the logical arrangements refer to how the data flows from one computer to another computer. It is the systematic description of the network arrangements connected to the various nodes. These are connected through each other by lines of the connection.

Types of network topology:

There are many types of network topologies there, which has described below.

  • Bus topology
  • Ring topology
  • Star topology
  • Mesh topology
  • Tree topology
  • Hybrid topology

What is Hybrid topology?

As the name suggests, hybrid means the mixing of the two or more types of topology. It can be ring topology, mesh topology, mesh or star topology, and so many combinations.

For example, there are so many departments in a college or school, and each has its different function of the work. Let us say one department uses ring topology and another one-star topology. Then we have to finally combine both types of topology, which gives the result of the hybrid topology. 

What is Hybrid Topology

The above diagram indicates the mixing of the two or more topologies (mesh, star, bus, ring topology), which gives the desired mixed hybrid topology.Its hybrid topology is more diversified in computer networks to fulfill the desired network. Uses of choice depend upon the uses and deployments of the desired networks. There are many more situations in that we have to use hybrid topology.

Why do we use hybrid topology?

Every human mind searches for the cheap and best options to go with anything. Due to effective cost and better throughput, it uses any applications to run inefficiently. There are various sectors where the hybrid topology is widely used, such as banking, financial, educational institutes, research organizations, and many more multi-national companies. For creating hybrid technology, there is a need to mix any two topologies; it can be either partial or full, t depends upon the situation. The application of the hybrid topology is increasing rapidly, and many offices use hybrid topology to give the desired results as per need. This type of topology gives maximum efficiency as compared to others. It is more flexible due to size can be increased or decreased easily. Troubleshooting is also easy in the case of the hybrid topology.

Types of hybrid topologies:

 Various hybrid topologies integrate many basic topologies to make a new form of hybrid feature. These topologies are in the form of hierarchical. There are various types of hybrid topologies possible, which are discussed below.

  • Star-Ring hybrid topology:
    It is the mix-up of the star and ring types of topology. Through the ring topology, two or more star topology is linked with the help of the wired connection. This type of topology is unidirectional and bidirectional, which means data flow in both directions. In the original ring topology, the data flows in the form of bi-directional. It provides more reliability if one node fails to send data, and then other nodes don't affect. These are the big advantages of the star and Ring hybrid topology.                         
  • Star-Bus hybrid topology:
    Star-Bus topologies can be constructed by combining two topologies: star topology and bus topology. Two or more topologies achieve this with the help of a wired connection. This type of hybrid topology also provides better throughput and reliability. It is also bidirectional, which means data are flowing in both directions.
What is Hybrid Topology
  • Hierarchical Network topology:
    The hierarchical network topology is also known as tree topology. The structure of the hierarchical network topology is the same as the tree topology. This type of network is combined with two or more types of networks in which the main topology is called the root node, and the next level of the node is called child nodes. Tree topology is the combination of both parents as well as child networks. It provides a relationship between parent and child networks. This type of topology also gives maximum throughput and reliability. This type of topology is the same as the working principles of the oops inheritance concept.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Hybrid topology:

Advantages of Hybrid Topology:

There are so many advantages of the hybrid topology; some are discussed below.

  • Reliable:  This type of topology is more reliable than others because it consists of two or more types of topology. Reliable means if one node gets damaged for any reason, it is possible to remove the damaged network without affecting the other networks. If more and more nodes are interconnected, then there are no problems regarding data flow among other nodes.
  • Effective in nature:  This is more effective and widely used in computer networks. Star topology belongs to high tolerance, and ring topology belongs to good data reliability. These are the biggest advantages of hybrid topology. The weakness of the several topologies connected to the network was ignored. Several nodes are interconnected to the network, so more strong networks affect the data transfer, and weakly connected nodes are ignored. This gives maximum efficiency to any possible combination node.
  • Flexible in nature:  This is also a great advantage of the hybrid topology. All nodes are flexible. This type of topology can be implemented for various networks. It can be created by maximizing the resource.
  • It can transfer the data in an easy way between the different kinds of networks.
  • It is widely used in data communication, signal strength, etc. 
  • A hybrid network is created based on the requirements of the company. We can easily make that type of network as per requirements. These are the great features of the hybrid topology.
  • Using this topology, we can handle a large volume of traffic easily.
  • Error detecting is easy as compared to the other type of topology.
  • It is used to create a large network.

Disadvantages of the Hybrid Topology:

  • More complex architecture: Since the hybrid topology is made up of a combination of two or more topologies, so it is a challenging task to create complex architecture. There is a need to be very efficient in installing the configuration process.
  • More expensive: As hybrid topology is much more expensive due to more complex architecture, purchasing and maintaining are very difficult in the case of this type of topology. Many more hubs are also required to create complex networks. It requires a lot of cables to support big complex networks. Every time we have to create new network architecture as per requirements. This is also the big disadvantage of the hybrid topology.
  • Need more hardware:  For the creation of hybrid structures, more and more hardware is required. Every architecture is based on combining two or more numbers of types of topology. It can combine the mesh topology, star topology, star topology, and ring topology.
  • One of the other disadvantages of the hybrid network is it needs a multi-station to check the faulty networks. And multi-station is very costly, so overall it is more expensive.
  • Installation of complex architecture is a very difficult process.
  • Hubs which are used to connect two distinct networks, it is very costly.
  • Design is very complex, so it needs high maintenance.
  • Fault detection is very difficult due to complex architectures.
  • A hybrid topology is used in making large networks, so it needs more cables and cooling systems.

Where we use hybrid topology?

A hybrid topology is used in many places. Some of them are discussed below.

  • Used in schools, colleges, and universities:  Many departments are connected with the hybrid network. If one of the departments is active, its effect will be useful on the whole campus.
  • Used in personal and public businesses: Hybrid topology is widely used in any business; it can be public or private.
  • Used in various offices: Almost all big offices are connected with the hybrid network. Any data can easily send to the other network. There are so many advantages of using the hybrid network.
  • It is widely used in research organizations:   Research organization is fully equipped with hybrid networks. It can be a combined effect of all the possible types of topologies.
  • Multinational offices:  All big companies are fully equipped with a hybrid network s that all the employees can send the data and information to each department.
  • Banks:   It is the biggest application of the hybrid topology. All the banks are fully interconnected with the hybrid network.