Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device

Components

Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware

Memory

Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports

How

How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard

Questions

Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU

Difference

Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage

Misc

Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types

What is an ATX Style Connector?

ATX Design in 1995, Intel created ATX (Advanced Technology eXtended), a motherboard and power supply configuration standard to create on previous factor standards like the AT architecture. It was the first significant modification in the Design of a desktop computer shell, motherboard, and power supply in many years. As a result, it helped in improved part standardization and interchangeability. The standard specifies the dimensions, mounting positions, I/O panel, and power and connection intersection between a computer case, a motherboard, and a power supply.

The earlier P8 and P9 AT-style connectors have been replaced by an ATX-style connection. It is one of the computer's largest connections. It connects an ATX-style motherboard to a power supply. As seen in the illustration, the 20-pin cable is a multi-colour cable that may be identified as P1.

The ATX cable connector in the image includes a little clip on the top that clicks into place and holds the cable in place. It connects only in one direction, so it is also keyed.

What is an ATX Style Connector
What is an ATX Style Connector

By keeping the four extra pins unconnected, a power supply with a 24-pin connection can be utilized on a motherboard with a 20-pin connector. If your motherboard has a 24-pin connector, you must connect all 24-pins. You will need to purchase a new power supply if your current one does not include a 24-pin connector.

The ATX form factor is the most prevalent motherboard configuration. Other smaller board standards (such as microATX, FlexATX, nano-ITX, and mini-ITX) preserve the basic back layout but reduce the board's size and the number of expansion slots. The dimensions of a full-size ATX board are 12 × 9.6 in (305 × 244 mm), allowing microATX boards to fit into many ATX chassis.

A brief history of ATX Style Connector

The ATX specifications were first issued by Intel in 1995, and they have been revised multiple times since then. Version 2.2 of the ATX motherboard specification is the most recent. 2.53 was announced in June 2020 as the most recent ATX 12V power supply unit specification. The EATX (Extended ATX) motherboard is a larger variant of the ATX motherboard, with dimensions of 12×13 in (305 × 330 mm). At the same time, certain motherboards with multiple CPU sockets have been released.

The BTX (Balanced Technology Extended) standard was announced by Intel in 2004 as a substitute for ATX. Intel chose to cease developing BTX in 2006, despite the fact that several manufacturers had accepted the new standard. The ATX architecture is still the de facto standard for personal computers in 2022.

Connectors

On the back of the computer chassis, the AT standard was drastically altered. Originally, AT cases just included a keyboard connector and expansion slots for back plates for add-on cards. Any additional onboard interfaces (such as serial and parallel ports) must be linked to case-provided connectors or brackets fitted in unused expansion slot positions using flying leads.

ATX permitted any motherboard manufacturer to place these ports in a rectangular space on the rear of the system with their own order, while most manufacturers followed a few broad patterns based on what ports the motherboard offered. A snap-out panel, also known as an I/O plate or I/O shield, is fitted in the casing in one of the most common designs.

I/O plates can be swapped if necessary to suit a motherboard that is being installed; I/O plates are typically offered with motherboards that are not tailored for a specific machine. The computer will function normally without the plate, but there will be open spaces in the casing that may weaken the EMI/RFI screening and enable dirt and other foreign objects to enter. Panels were created to allow an AT motherboard to be installed in an ATX chassis. An integrated I/O plate is available on some ATX motherboards.

The ATX standard also made PS/2-style mini-DIN keyboard and mouse ports commonplace. The keyboard on AT computers had a 5-pin DIN connection, and serial port mice were commonly utilized (although PS/2 mouse interfaces were also found on select systems). PS/2-style keyboard and mouse ports are being phased out on many contemporary motherboards in favor of the more modern Universal Serial Bus. 25-pin parallel connections and 9-pin RS-232 serial ports are two further outdated connectors that are steadily being phased out of current ATX motherboards Ethernet, FireWire, eSATA, analogue and S/PDIF audio, video (analogue D-sub, DVI, HDMI, or DisplayPort), extra USB ports, and Wi-Fi is all available onboard.

The ATX specification has a key fault in that it was last revised at a time when power supplies were frequently mounted at the top of computer cases rather than the bottom. As a result, a number of common port locations have become problematic, notably the 4/8 pin CPU power port, which is often located along the board's top edge to allow for a top-mounted power supply. This makes cables from bottom-mounted power sources difficult to reach and sometimes demands a unique hole in the backplane for the cable to come in from behind and curve around the board, complicating insertion and wire management. Many power supply cables barely reach or fail to reach due to their configuration or are too hard to bend, necessitating the installation of extensions.

Power Supply

The power supply must generate three major outputs: +3.3 V, +5 V, and +12 V. According to the ATX specification, Low-power 12 V and +5 VSB (standby) supplies are also required. The 12 V supply provides the negative supply voltage for RS-232 ports, and one pin on common PCI slots is used to give a reference voltage for some sound card types. When a PC is turned off, the 5 VSB supply generates trickle power for ATX's soft-power function, as well as powering the real-time clock to conserve the CMOS battery's charge.

One 20-pin connection was used to power the motherboard at first. An ATX power supply has a variety of peripheral power connections as well as (in current systems) two motherboard connectors: an auxiliary 8-pin (or 4+4-pin) connector for additional CPU power and a primary 24-pin power supply connector, which is an expansion of the original 20-pin version. At the motherboard, MOLEX 39-29-9202 is a 20-pin MOLEX connector. A 20-pin MOLEX 39-01-2200 is found on the cable. On the connection, the pin pitch is 4.2 mm (one-sixth of an inch).

Physical Characteristic

ATX power supplies have the identified width and height as the preceding LPX (Low Profile eXtension) form factor (which are often incorrectly referred to as "AT" power supplies due to their widespread use in later AT and Baby AT systems, despite the fact that the actual AT and Baby AT power supply form factors were physically larger), as well as a four-screw mounting layout. With depths of 160, 180, 200, and 230 mm, the 140 mm depth is constantly modified.