Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit

What is Monitor?

Monitor is the display unit of the computer. It is the output device, which is responsible for displaying the content to the user. It is also called the Display terminal. Any content such as a video, image, text, or any interface of the software that has some graphic information associated with it is generated on the screen using the system graphic card. The functioning of the monitor is similar to that of a television. It is the display unit of the system. The first monitor was developed in 1973 as a component of the Xerox Alto system.

What Is Monitor

The display quality of the monitor is better than the television. The previous models of the monitors were very bulky and required huge space to set up. They used huge cathode ray tubes and a fluorescent screen to display the contents. But with, the introduction of technologies like LED reduced the size of the monitor drastically. Now monitors with flat panel displays are easily available in the market. It has drastically reduced the cost of manufacturing too. Development of Monitors The first time a display unit was added to a machine was in 1964.

The Uniscope 300 had a built-in CRT display; though it was not a monitor, it was a milestone in developing the actual monitor for the system. But it was 1973 when the first monitor was developed. It was incorporated in Xerox Alto. It was a monochromatic display that used cathode ray tubes for displaying the content. George Samuel developed a touch screen display in 1975, which was used for the first time in 1982. In 1976 Apple developed a system that allowed the user to play a video on the system's monitor. It was the first system that had a video port in it. With the introduction of LED technology in 1977, it was used to develop the monitor, but it was not available in the market due to high production costs.

The first colour display was launched in 1977; it also used Cathode ray tube technology. IBM developed the VGA monitor in 1987, and in 1988 SVGA was recognized as the standard display for the system's monitor. Liquid Crystal Displays were used to develop the monitor in 1997, the display was much better than the ones using CRT technology, so the CRT was outdated. New technology in the markets is frequently introduced. Modern monitors provide high-quality resolutions at a comparatively cheaper rate.

Types of Monitors

Cathode Ray Tube Monitors

What Is Monitor

They are primitive monitors that use a beam of negative charges to create the image. The charged particles are constantly sent toward the display unit. On collision with the screen, these charged particles produce red, green, and blue colours, which then can be mixed to produce more colours. They were used for monochromatic displays in the initial stages, but later on, colour displays using CRT were also introduced.

Flat-Panel Display

What Is Monitor

The primitive model built using cathode ray tubes was bulky and required large spaces. These monitors were developed to overcome the disadvantages of CRT monitors. They were very sleek in comparison; they consumed less energy and did not emit radiation. The only disadvantage was that the cost of the flat-panel monitor is very high. It came in varied sizes and was used in cellular and computer displays. There are two types of flat panel displays based on the technology used to activate the display screen.

  1. Liquid Crystal Display: It contains a liquid crystal between the two glasses of the screen. The crystal particles are arranged so that the light emitted from the backside of the screen produces an image. The energy expenditure is very less, and there are no radiations emitted.
  2. Gas Plasma Display: This technique has gas stored between both the glasses; the gas is used to produce ultraviolet rays by applying high voltage. The ultraviolet light produces the image on the screen. This method is quite expensive; therefore, it is less preferred.

Touch Screen Monitor

What Is Monitor

They act as both input and output devices. The user can interact with the system using the monitor only. It responds to the touch of the user. The monitor displays the system's content and is equipped with sensors that respond to the stimuli, and it
eliminates the need for extra input devices such as a mouse or a keyboard. The user can interact with the system by touching the icons or characters displayed.

The touch screen monitor can be classified into three types based on the technology used:

  1. Resistive Touch Screen: It uses a layer of highly conductive metal that is resistant to electricity. The screen reacts to the touch, and there is a change in the current supplied to the metal; this response is sent to the controller. This is widely used, and the monitor is not affected by water and can be used to make water-resistant gadgets.
  2. Surface Wave Touch Screen: This screen is an application of ultrasonic waves as on interaction with the monitor, an ultrasonic wave is generated, which is then received by the system. This system is prone to get damaged due to water and dust.
  3. Capacitive Touch Screen: This is the most advanced technology used to develop touch screens. It is specifically a response to finger touch and does not react to other stimuli. They are not damaged by dust, and the picture quality is better than any other alternative available.

LED Monitor

What Is Monitor

They are the most popular monitor in the market. The LED uses diodes to emit the picture. Their popularity is that they have a sleek design and the weight of the monitor itself is very low. The screen uses a panel of light-emitting diodes as the source. Nowadays, LED monitors are used in mobile phones, tablets, computers, and laptops. P. Mitchell developed the prototype in 1978 that both NASA and General Motors awarded.

Advantages of LED Monitor

  • This technology is both energy and cost-efficient.
  • It is reliable, and the design of the screen is very attractive.
  • The picture resolution is also better than previous models.

OLED Monitors

What Is Monitor

This is an upgraded version of the light-emitting diode. This technology is far more efficient, and the picture quality also improved. This furthermore reduced the width of the monitor. This was done by removing the backlight from the displays and instead of the backlight using the emissive displays made by using thin films of conductors. This technology is used in the latest high-end devices.

DLP Monitors

What Is Monitor

This technology is used to project the images on a larger screen. Earlier Liquid Crystal Displays were used to project the image from a monitor on large screens, but the image quality of not good as it produced blurry images. But when Texas Industries developed DLP, it allowed users to project the images even in a lit room with great picture quality.

TFT Monitor

What Is Monitor

A thin flat transistor monitor is equipped with four transistors responsible for controlling the pixels of the content being displayed. They are an advanced version of flat panel LCD monitors that use an active matrix and better picture quality than the previous LCDs. The only disadvantage of a TFT monitor is that the manufacturing cost is very high.

Plasma Screen Monitor

What Is Monitor

This monitor is similar to that LCD and LED monitors. It offers a flat range of monitors mounted on the wall and a brighter display than the LCDs or LEDs. It supports the display of both digital and analog video signals. They offer clearer picture quality with a high resolution and contrast ratio. They are used to develop a wide range of curved monitors. The disadvantages of plasma screens are they are prone to damage as the plasma heats up, and the screen can burn. This technology consumes more power and can lose the screen's brightness with time.

Types of Monitor Connectors

There are various types of connectors to connect the monitor with the system. Some of these connectors are mentioned below:

  • HDMI 
  • VGA
  • USB-C
  • DVI 
  • Thunderbolt
  • Display Port
  • HDMI or High-Definition Multimedia Interface: It allows users to transmit high bandwidth signals from the system to the monitor. It is used to ensure that the video signal is of optimum quality over a short distance of approximately 25 feet; with any length longer than that, there are chances of signal loss. It connects a projector, high-definition television, or DVD player. The cable enables the user to transmit signals from eight different sources simultaneously.
  • IBM developed VGA or Video Graphic Adapter in 1987. They enable the user to connect their system with a projector or TV. The colors displayed by the VGA depend upon the range of resolution. For ranges less than 320x200, it can display up to 256 colors, while for 640x480 resolution, it can display 16 colors at a refresh rate of 60Hz. They are outdated and replaced by HDMI and DVI cable ports.
  • Thunderbolt: It was developed by Intel and Apple. It is a hardware interface that allows the user to connect peripheral devices to the system. It allows users to transfer data at high speed over large distances. They can carry DC power. It can also be used with USB-C connectors that increase the data transfer speed up to 40 Gb per second. There are two types of Thunderbolt cable available in the market; one is made up of optical fibers, and the other one is made up of copper wire. The thunderbolt wire made up of optical fiber is expensive. That's why their production was limited. The copper thunderbolt wires are popular because the cost of copper wire is very less in comparison. Intel intends to make a thunderbolt wire by combining both optical fibers and copper to increase the data transfer rate and, at the same time, reduce the cost of production. 
  • USB-C or Universal Serial Bus: It connects the system with any peripheral device. We can also connect the system from different end devices using the USB Cable. The USB cable is used to charge devices like smartphones, tablets, etc. They also allow users to share media among various devices such as cameras. Peripheral devices such as a mouse, keyboards, and printers are available as USB devices. They have varying sizes and shapes of USB cables, and their length may lie in the range of 9 feet 10 inches to 16 feet 5 inches. They are used where the speed is not an issue.
  • DVI or Digital Visual Interface: It transfers data at high resolution from the system to the monitors or projectors. The resolution can be as high as 2560x1600pi. Certain television also has ports to connect digital visual interface. The limitation of VDI is that it can only transmit audio signals, and therefore HDMI cable that transmits both audio and video signal is preferred. There are three names of DVI connectors based on the signals they can transmit; DVI-D transmits only digital signals, DVI-A transmits analog signals, and DVI-I can transmit both digital and analog signals. The quality of the DVI cable, if not better, is at least equal to the VGA cable.
  • Display Port: It provides two types of connections; one is the standard connection, while the second is a mini-port. The user can only transmit the same type of signals from both ports simultaneously. VEGA developed it. VGI, HDMI, and DVI ports are the most common to establish display connections.

Security Issues with Monitor

There is a risk of remotely accessing the information displayed on the monitor if the thief can detect the monitor's electromagnetic emissions. The technique to display the content of LCDs or CRTs using these emissions is called Van Eck phreaking, named after the Dutch researcher Win Van Eck who proved this theory and published a research paper on it.