Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is SAN?

A storage area network, sometimes known as SAN, is a specialized, quick network that provides network access to storage devices. Hosts, switches, storage components, and storage devices make up standard SAN configurations. These components are connected to one another via a range of technologies, topologies, and protocols. SANs may connect several locations.

A SAN offers storage devices to a host to give the impression that the storage is locally attached. The adoption of various virtualization techniques allows for this streamlined display of storage to a host.

Uses of SANs

  • Improve storage utilization and effectiveness by consolidating storage resources, offering tiered storage, etc.
  •  SAN helps in increasing application availability (e.g., multiple data paths), improving application performance (e.g., off-load storage functions; segregate or zone networks), and enhancing data protection and security.
  • SANs play a significant part in business continuity management (BCM) operations inside a company (e.g., by spanning multiple sites).
  • SANs frequently use a switched fabric technology as their foundation. Among the examples are Fibre Channel (FC), Ethernet, and InfiniBand. Data may be transferred between various SAN technologies via gateways.
  • Enterprise settings frequently employ fiber channels. In addition to SCSI, NVMe, FICON, and other protocols, Fibre Channel can also transfer them.
  • Most small- and medium-sized businesses utilize Ethernet. Using Ethernetinfrastructure, storage and IP protocols may be combined into one network via SANs. Ethernet may carry several protocols, including SCSI, FCoE, NVMe, RDMA, and others.
  • Environments for high-performance computing frequently employ InfiniBand. Among other protocols, SRP, NVMe, and RDMA may be transported across InfiniBand.

About SNIA

SNIA is an international resource for vendor-neutral education on storage and information management technologies. It offers an impartial understanding of a wide range of technologies, from fundamental principles to cutting-edge methods.

The vendor-neutral educational programs offered by SNIA help IT professionals stay current with the industry's fast technological advancements and help the community make future plans accordingly.

The significance of Storage Area Network

A storage area network, or SAN for short, is a fast, specialized network that gives storage devices network access.

As a result, for increased effectiveness and better data management, the majority of enterprises use some SAN in addition to network-attached storage (NAS).

A server's ability to connect to a finite number of storage devices formerly constrained a network's storage capacity. However, a SAN adds networking flexibility, allowing a single server or a large number of heterogeneous systems spread across several data centers to share a single storage resource.

In order to avoid bandwidth constraints, the SAN works with the conventional dedicated connection between a network file server and storage, as well as the provide an idea that the server essentially owns and administers the storage devices. A SAN improves storage reliability and availability by removing single points of failure.

A SAN is also perfect for disaster recovery since a network may comprise several storage devices, including disk, magnetic tape, and optical storage (DR).

Benefits of SAN

The storage device is made available via the SAN such that it is not on a specific server bus. Storage is functionally dispersed throughout the company since it is externalized and connected directly to the network.

The SAN also centralizes server clustering and storage devices, which might result in simpler, more affordable centralized management and reduced total cost of ownership.

The performance of data-moving applications is improved by SANs, which commonly use block-level storage systems for transporting data directly from the source to the target with little server intervention.

However, businesses are free to utilize any network file system (NFS) which is compatible with their infrastructures to allow different hosts for accessing multiple storage devices connected to the same network in modern network topologies.

Some other advantages of SAN are described in the following points:

1. Increased availability of the application: Storage is accessible through numerous pathways for better reliability, availability, and serviceability and exists independently of applications.

2. Better performance of the application: Server storage processing is moved to other networks using SANs.

3. Both centralized and combined: High availability, scalability, flexibility, and easier management are all made possible by SANs.

4. Data vaulting and transfer to remote sites: With a remote copy, SANs defend data from disaster and malicious assaults.

5. Straightforward centralized management: SANs make management simpler by producing a single image of the storage medium.

How does a SAN function?

A SAN, also known as the network behind the servers, which is made up of a physical connection-based communication architecture. The storage area network (SAN) can be seen as a development of the storage bus idea.
With the aid of comparable components like local area networks (LANs) and wide-area networks, this idea makes it possible for servers and storage devices to communicate with one another (WANs). A management layer that manages the connections, storage components, and computer systems is also a component of a SAN. This layer transmits the data safely and reliabily.

Today's SANs provide high availability and performance enhancements by introducing new ways to connect storage to servers. They link tape libraries and shared storage arrays to several servers that clustered systems employ for failover. Storage Area Networks (SANs) also enable direct, high-speed data transfers between servers and storage devices in the following three different methods or techniques:

1. Storage to Server: The benefit of using a conventional interaction approach is that several servers may simultaneously or serially access the same storage device.

2. Server to Server: For high-speed, low-latency, and high-volume communications between servers, a SAN may be employed.

3. Storage to Storage: Without the need for server involvement, data may be moved, freeing up server CPU cycles for other tasks like application processing. A disk drive device that automatically backs up its data to a tape device or a distant device mirroring over the SAN is two examples.

What is a SAN switch?

The SAN switch is the main component of most storage area networks. The only thing it does is transfer storage data traffic between servers and communal storage areas.
A SAN is created by connecting several host servers, which are made up of storage servers and equipment, via a switch.

Some switches can be used independently to create a basic SAN fabric. To create a bigger SAN fabric, specific switches can be joined to other switches. SAN fabrics are several SAN switches connected in an active, intelligent, non-shared manner. They expand a SAN's pool of potential connections. Switches and file servers are linked together using Fibre Channel host bus adapters (HBA).

SAN Components:

A SAN's main building blocks are its servers, storage, and networking infrastructure.

1. Servers

The server infrastructure, which consists of a variety of server platforms, is what drives all SAN solutions. The requirement for SANs grows as a result of initiatives like server consolidation and online commerce, which highlights the significance of network storage.

2. Storage

Disk systems and tape systems are two types of storage systems. HDDs, SSDs, and Flash drives can all be a part of the disk system. Tape drives, tape autoloaders, and tape libraries can be part of the tape system.

3. Network Architecture

Fibre Channel is one of the hardware and software elements of SAN connection that connect servers and storage devices. Hubs, switches, gateways, directors, and routers are examples of hardware. Software for SAN administration is part of the program.

Connection Types of SAN Storage

A connection type called a storage area network protocol controls how switches and devices interact with one another inside a SAN fabric. A SAN may employ one or more protocols. There are certain routers and devices that support multiple protocols.

Scalability, security, and management are all improved by multiprotocol routers and devices. They allow devices in different SAN fabrics to interact with one another without combining the textiles into a single, big meta-SAN fabric. Multiprotocol routers and other devices offer their own functionality, such as zoning, and support a variety of protocols, including Server Message Block (SMB), depending on the vendor. These are the many SAN connection types:

1. Internet System Interface for Small Computers

An IP-based standard protocol called Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) is used to connect data storage devices across a network and transfer data by transmitting SCSI commands over IP networks. Clients can utilize the same networking technologies for storage, storage management, and data networks when IP-based SANs are used. Additionally, as iSCSI employs TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), it may operate over practically any physical network.

2. Protocol for Fiber Channel

The serial SCSI command protocol used on Fibre Channel (FC) networks is called Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP). The throughput is greater than that of a local area network (LAN).
It is the default protocol for open systems and is a gigabit-speed network technology that is mostly used for storage networking. FCP, which was first utilized in the supercomputer industry, has evolved into the de facto connection type for SANs in commercial storage.

3. Ethernet over Fiber Channel

A technology called Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) is used to send FC packets over Ethernet. It can increase the SAN infrastructure's flexibility and simplicity. It substitutes a single device that can transport both IP packets and storage data for dedicated switching systems for LANs and SANs. Converged networks are the name given to these setups.