Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is Cyber Warfare?

Cyber warfare is the use of technology, which is used to attack the enemy state. It is a hacking technique mainly used by military forces to target foreign countries' key systems.

Cyber warfare can lead to a threat to the nation.

What is Cyber Warfare

Example of cyber warfare: The joint American and Israeli Stuxnet attack on a ram nuclear program from 2009 to 2010. It explored the power station networks and data theft that come under cyber-attacks.

Impacts of cyber-warfare

In the Stuxnet cyber-attack, many are impacted:

  • Impacted the value of the Iranian currency to 80% of its previous value.
  • Iran's last $50-60 Billion in energy investments.
  • 30% of the population is "suffering” from economic impacts.
  • Cyber Warfare is more dangerous in affecting politics, militaries, and culture.

How does the cyber war look?

Cyberwar can be of many forms; all the forms are involved in destroying systems. The main goal is to make unstable the country win, hich they were targeted with the help of weapons available.

Cyber warfare could be in different forms:

  • Financial infrastructure attack.
  • Attacks on public properties such as dams and power stations.
  • Attack of safety measurements such as early instructions of traffic lights.
  • Attack on military resources.

Need for Cyber Warfare

The main purpose of cyber warfare is to damage and destroy the infrastructure using computer viruses.

There are 7 different kinds of Cyber Warfare Attacks.

1. Espionage

2. Sabotage

3. Denial-of-service

4. Electrical power grid

5. Propaganda Attacks

6. Economic Disruption

7. Surprise Attacks

1. Espionage

Cyber Espionage is an electronic detection technique that uses the computer's network to gain important information. Some of the key steps to embracing defense against cyber espionage:

  • It would help if you did not connect to the unsecured free networks; attackers may use this as an opportunity to use our credentials to access systems and gain information.
  • Change the passwords and viruses to be updated regularly.
  • You shouldn’t share valuable information with others.
  •  Keep all the important information in a secure place. Don’t plug in any unknown storage devices.

2. Sabotage

Sabotage is a serious attack on the computer system. Some of the hackers can attack the system while sitting at home. These hackers will send viruses using different ways. A virus can change the working of the system, and it may destroy the information. Cyber Sabotage may lead to many risks for the country. Sabotage's main goal is to weaken the organization or the nation. For example, military attacks aim to obtain information about the strong developing areas and weapons manufacturing companies with the help of databases available in the military.

3. Denial-of-service

Denial of service is a kind of cyber-attack. The main purpose is to disturb normal operation. It is an attack from multiple sources at a time. This system can transform data all over the world. When this attack is done, the network will reduce its bandwidth, and the web pages that computers will take more time to load while accessing them.

4. Electrical power grid

The attack on the power grids of a particular country is called the Electrical power grid attack. Digitalization has made things smarter and made them easy to attack. Power plants and other infrastructures are also becoming a target. Electricity is so important in our lives all electricity is started by a generator, which can be powered by Wind, Water and air and then the electricity transformed to converting power stations for long distances to lower voltage, can use them for houses and other businesses.

5. Propaganda Attacks

One of the old techniques for the attack uses modern electronic means to influence the public. These are based on the goal, and they can range from the target while mostly focusing on the politicians and targeting the organizations. Attacks related to Propaganda are many such as:

  • Data set hacking: Criminals will break into systems and steal the data.
  • Machine hacking: One example is the hacking of voting machines, one of the big frauds people use.
  • Fake news and many: The spreading of fake news is one of the big things that will change people's opinions.

6. Economic Disruption

Due to cyber-attacks, the economy is disturbed a lot. Since 2014 the rate of cyber-attacks has been increasing rapidly due to technological advancement. Damaged many small businesses. There is a lot of impact on small businesses and individuals as most businesses are run with the Internet as a source.

It will create a long-term disturbance to business. Damage to the companies may decrease their efficiency and lowers their profit.

7. Surprise Attacks

These attacks are a kind of cyber-attacks, which are occurred in suddenly. The attacks are caused by reducing warnings. As can be seen, many accounts are hacked, and a large amount of money is deducted from accounts within a short period, like a sudden attack. Pearl Harbor attack is equivalent to this kind. In this, the enemy can’t estimate his weakness in their defense.

Is there any damage to people by cyberwarfare?

In these attacks, there will be a loss to human beings, which may cause death. It may lead to disrupting people. People die in this attack due to a lack of oxygen, as there will be attacks on power grids leading to power disconnection for the functioning of oxygen cylinders. Mostly these attacks are on computers and Network areas.

Weapons used in cyber-warfare

Some of the includes as weapons in cyberwar:

  • Phishing of emails and computer viruses brings down the infrastructure.
  • The DoS attack is used for attacking attack the target computers.
  • Important data from different institutions and other government organizations are being hacked.
  • Cyber espionage will lead to a data threat and affect national security.       

Would people be safe in Cyberwar?

There are no chances of being attacked, but it may affect our life. All should be aware of this, and to keep our families in safe mode, you should follow some instructions:

  1. All our electronic equipment should be updated with technologies.
  2. If our credit cards are not working, keep the cash.
  3. In case of any power loss, keep all torch lights and candles for survival.
  4. If there is a shortage of groceries, store them for 1 week.

Undertaking chance assessments with Cyber Wargames

A satisfactory way to evaluate a kingdom’s readiness for cyber struggle is to conduct an actual-life exercise or simulation called a cyber wargame. A wargame can check how governments and personal organizations respond to a cyber battle nation geographical region, expose gaps in defenses, and enhance cooperation between entities.

Cyber wargames can assist towns, nation-states, or countries enhance readiness for cyber battle. It can bring together those humans who will not understand every other and assist them in determining how to work collectively in a disaster.

Enhancing regulations – governments may additionally establish cyber battle regulations but want to test them in exercise. A cyber wargame can test the effectiveness of policies and provide a possibility for improving them.

The significance of Layered defense

Under the strain of cyber warfare, governments of many nations have issued operational countrywide protection policies to guard their statistics infrastructure. These policies typically use a layered protection technique, which includes:

  • Securing the cyber environment
  • Raising awareness for cybersecurity
  • Selling open standards for preventing cyber threats
  • Imposing a national cybersecurity warranty framework
  • Working with personal agencies to improve their cybersecurity capabilities

Securing the personal quarter

Local companies' resilience to cyber assaults is a strategic aspect of cyber warfare. The following are fixed measures to ensure company cybersecurity that could promote national security.

  • Create limitations to breaching the community
  • Use web application firewalls (WAF) to quickly access, look into, and block malicious visitors.
  • Facilitate cooperation among the public and private sectors
  • Use neighborhood hackers as a useful resource to defend against foreign cyber threats.

Imperva Cyber Warfare conflict safety

Imperva can assist corporations guard themselves against cyber warfare by implementing a comprehensive cybersecurity answer with software and data protection.

Imperva software safety

Imperva presents comprehensive safety for applications, APIs, and microservices:

Internet software Firewall: Save attacks with international-elegance analysis of web visitors in your packages.

Runtime software Self-safety (RASP): Actual-time assault detection and prevention from your utility runtime environment is going anyplace your programs cross. Prevent outside attacks and injections, and decrease your vulnerability backlog.

API protection: Automated API safety ensures your API endpoints are included as they are published, defensive your programs from exploitation.

Advanced Bot protection – prevent commercial enterprise good judgment attacks from all get right of entry to points – websites, cellular apps, and APIs Benefit seamless visibility and control over bot site visitors to forestall online fraud thru account takeover or competitive rate scraping.

DDoS safety: Block attack traffic at the threshold to ensure commercial enterprise continuity with assured uptime and no overall performance impact.

Attack Analytics: Ensures whole visibility with the device gaining knowledge of and area information across the application safety stack to show styles within the noise and come across application attacks, enabling you to isolate and prevent assault campaigns.

Customer-face protection: Gain visibility and manipulate third-party JavaScript code to reduce the threat of supply chain fraud, save you information breaches, and consumer-aspect attacks.

Imperva’s answer permits cloud-managed service users to take advantage of visibility and management of cloud information swiftly.

Database security: Imperva supplies analytics, safety, and response throughout your data assets, on-premise and within the cloud – giving you the danger visibility to save you records breaches and avoid compliance incidents. Combine with any database to benefit visibility immediately, implement regularly occurring guidelines, and reduce time to cost.

Statistics danger analysis: Automate the detection of non-compliant, risky, or malicious information and get admission to behavior throughout all your databases organization-huge to accelerate remediation.